This thesis tried to inquire the social background of the private schools in the feudal age from a historical stand of view. In middle age of Japan, there were few higher schools because of a internal war continued through the middle age. After the war, in the begininng of Tokugawa era, some private schools were appeared as a center of the movement for cultural and educational enlightenment. The typical schools in these private schools were Matunaga Sekigo's school which was established in 1637, Yamazaki Ansai's school which was established in 1655, Nakae Toju's school which was established in 1635 and Kinoshita Junan's school which was established in 1645. These typical school were founded in or near Kyoto which is a center of culture in the feudal age. In these school, Chinese Confucianism were taught as a moral teachings for not only warrior class but merchant and peasantry. In the middle of Tokugawa era, Ito Jinsai's school and Ogiu Sorai's school were most famous private schools. The former were established in Kyoto (1662) chiefly for merchant and peasantry. The latter were established in Tokyo (1709) chiefly for warrior class. They had a critical thought against Chu, Hsi (1130-1200)'s moral teachings which was most popular educational thought at that time. They improved educational methods, for example, Kaidoku-group reading methods-were used by both school at first. Teaching methods for the pronunciation of Chinese also improved by Ogiu Sorai's school.