- 国際文化論集 (ISSN:09170219)
- no.40, pp.1-66, 2009-06-10
In the first chapter, I indicated that there are two types of the Italian Renaissance. The first type means the extraordinary outburst of the vitality of the Italian people in the late medieval era, since 13th century, which Burckhardt represented as a whole for the first time. The second type begins at about 1400, with the making of the Renaissance style and Humanism in Florence. Burckhardt's book, "The Culture of the Italian Renaissance", treats mainly with the first type, but also some of the second type. In the second chapter, I examined the relations of the two types with Florence. Florence appeared relatively late in the world of the first type, but Burckhardt gave the very impotant role of the promotor of the modernization of Europe to Florence in his book. The second type was born in Florence. In the third chapter, I asked why Burckhardt estimated Florence so high? This overestimate of Florence comes from the fact that more than 40 percents of the main authors (20 percents even with miner authors) of this time were Florentines or their descendents. In this field Florence had no rivals. An interesting statistics shows when this dominance of intellectual productivity of the Florentines and Tuscans happened. Following the statistics, in the 20 years after the defeat of Montaperti, the intellectual productivity of the Tuscans leaped up to more than 12 times (18 times if correctly counted) than the former term. The reflection of the defeat taught to the Tuscans and Florentines the importance of the informations and the knowledge of the humanities. In the fourth chapter, I noticed that the defeat can influence the nation for a long term without its consciousness. The defeat made medieval Florence negative and passive to the war. After the defeat, the Florentines shunned the outbreak of war as long as possible, and even in the fifteenth Century, Florence took the role of the peacemaker, and the promoter of the balance of power, as proved in the case of the peace treaty of 1454.