- 実践女子大学生活科学部紀要 (ISSN:13413244)
- vol.47, pp.13-21, 2010-03-19
As is generally known, the Japanese modern school system began in 1872, but there are few well-known educators who participated in an elementary education. Masataro Sawayanagi is such an educator ; he is known as a person of practice of the liberal education in educational history in the Taisho era at the Seijo elementary school, but as for his teacher theory, it is not studied so much, and in particular, there has been almost no study of his elementary school teacher theory. Therefore, I have concentrated on his idea of the elementary school teacher and clarified the main intent of his teacher theory and tried to make a comment about the characteristics. At first, he makes much of the role of an educator and a school teacher, and speaks of the basic qualification of the teacher as follows. That is, he says that the teacher needs to acquire learning and morality and states that the teacher must be such a person who feels pleasure in educating the human being, also can give a good example of moral education above all, and those recognizing the nation training in the next era particularly think about him. On the one hand, he had spoken about the treatment of the teacher, because the treatment of the teacher in his times was socially low, so he emphasize that the treatment of the primary school teacher had to raise immediately. But on the other, he had said that the elementary school teacher have the psychic income which can not buy for money. In addition, he says that the primary school teacher is an occupation that is suitable for a woman. Because woman teachers increased drastically in the Taisho era, he said that half the teachers should be woman, but he suggested a salary table for women teachers that was lower than the men teachers. In the trend of thought of the times after World War I and the trend of thought of the democracy of Japanese Taisho period, Sawayanagi's opinion about the woman teacher has the idea of gender equality and independence of the teacher and educational thought. But, seen from today, his outlook on gender shows an inequality male and female division of labor. So to speak, it is a limit caused by the Imperial Rescript on Education system ; however it can be said his opinion about the right of teachers to teach and the equality of the teacher group, and thinking that primary school teaching is a suitable occupation for the women are opinions of the universality beyond the situation of the times.