- 国際文化論集 (ISSN:09170219)
- no.33, pp.23-56, 2005-12
Generally, the fourth war between Venice and Genoa (the "War of Chioggia") is famous because this war had a decisive impact on Mediterranean trade. But, behind the war, there was another important war between Venice and Padua on the Italian mainland. This war is less famous, and many historians have paid little attention to it.Until the second half of the fourteenth century, Padua had not threatened Venice, but Francesco I, lord of Padua from 1355 to 1388, changed this situation: he entered into an alliance with Hungary against Venice.During the War of Chioggia (1378_1381), on sea the army of Genoa was the main body of the nti-Venice army, but on the mainland the lord of Padua had the initiative, helping the Genovese army, while also attacking and occupying many cities subordinate to Venice.While Venice fought against Genoa in Chioggia, its point of access to the sea, on the mainland it also fought against Francesco I to secure its commercial route to Germany and Lombardia. The important city for both Venice and Padua was Treviso, because without this city Venice could not maintain its surface trade routes with other Italian cities, and with the European states.In June of 1380, the Venetian army defeated the Genovese army at Chioggia, but on the mainland Padua remained dangerous, attacking not only Treviso but also other small cities allied to Venice. Because of its financial and military difficulties, Venice could not assist its subordinate cities very much. The city of Treviso was well-defended, and the army of Padua did not succeed in occupying it. But the Venetian government judged that it would be difficult to defend Treviso, because the alliance of Padua and Hungary made then much stronger than Venice, and because they disrupted the transport of food and necessities between Venice and its subordinate cities. Also, Venice could not pay its the soldiers satisfactorily. Finally, Venice decided to cede the city to the Duke of Austria. In the Peace of Turin (1381), Padua got some territory nearTreviso, but not Treviso itself, so, the Lord of Padua, declared war against Austria, too. Three years later, in 1384, he bought Treviso for 100.000 ducats from the Duke of Austria, who had given up the attempt to hold the city. In this way, Francesco I continued to be a danger to Venice until 1388 when Padua city fell to the allied army of Milan and Venice. This episode forced Venice to reflect deeply on its of the control of the Italian mainland.In this sense, the "War of Chioggia" was a very significant event.