著者
KATSUHIKO OHNUMA KENICHI AOKI AND TAKERU AKAZAWA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.3, pp.159-168, 1997 (Released:2010-10-21)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
17 19

We describe a series of preliminary experiments undertaken to investi-gate the relationship between complicated tool-making and the presence or absence of language in its communicative role. The experiments involved teaching two groups of university students how to make Levallois flakes by either verbal or non-verbal demonstration. The rates and mean times of acquisition of the Levallois technique and of successful flake production were compared. They did not differ significantly between the two groups. From these results, we infer that spoken language was not indispensable for Levallois flake production in the Middle Palaeolithic.
著者
YUHJI SAITOH KENICHI AOKI MICHIYA OKAZAKI TAKAHIRO HIRAMA TSUYOSHI ISOSU MASAHIRO MURAKAWA
出版者
THE FUKUSHIMA SOCIETY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE
雑誌
FUKUSHIMA JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:00162590)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.61-69, 2009 (Released:2013-10-04)
参考文献数
27

We investigated the differences between males and females in the reversal effect of neostigmine on neuromuscular blockade. Thirty male and 30 female patients undergoing elective general anesthesia were studied. Vecuronium was given in all patients anesthetized with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and sevoflurane. After the surgical procedure, when Tl (1st response in train-of-four (TOF))/control returned to 0.25, neostigmine 40 μg/kg in combination with atropine 20 μg/kg was given to antagonize residual neuromuscular blockade. Three, six, nine, 12, and 15 minutes after neostigmine reversal, Tl/control or TOF ratio (T4/Tl) did not significantly differ between the sexes. Also, 15 minutes after neostigmine administration, the number of patients in whom recovery from neuromuscular blockade was sufficient to guarantee good respiratory function, i.e., TOF ratio >0.74, did not significantly differ between the sexes. In contrast, 15 minutes after neostigmine, the number of patients in whom recovery from neuromuscular blockade was adequate to ensure satisfactory recovery from neuromuscular blockade including the return of the faculty of sight, i.e., TOF ratio >0.9, was significantly less in the males than in females (6 vs 14, P=0.028). In conclusion, 15 min after neostigmine, TOF ratio less often returns to a value of more than 0.9 in males than in females.