著者
MARK J. HUDSON MAMI AOYAMA TAKAMUNE KAWASHIMA TAKAYUKI GUNJI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.1, pp.87-92, 2008 (Released:2008-04-26)
参考文献数
59
被引用文献数
1

It is proposed that the so-called ‘protruding buttock’ figurines from Middle Jomon central Japan may be representations of steatopygia. The distribution of these figurines is associated with archaeological evidence for high population densities and possible intensive use of wild yams (Dioscorea japonica). Given the low fat content of these yams, it is suggested that nutritional stress in the diet of Middle Jomon hunter-gatherers of the Chubu highlands may be consistent with the fat accumulation on the buttocks apparently represented in the ‘protruding buttock’ figurines.
著者
YOUSUKE KAIFU REIKO T. KONO THOMAS SUTIKNA E. WAHYU SAPTOMO JATMIKO ROKUS DUE AWE HISAO BABA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.2, pp.129-145, 2015 (Released:2015-08-26)
参考文献数
90
被引用文献数
3 8

Dental remains of Homo floresiensis excavated during 2002–2004 at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia, consist of one partial maxillary dentition, two nearly complete mandibular dentitions, and four isolated teeth. We present here morphological descriptions of all these specimens and report aspects of their dentition, occlusion, and oral health condition. This dental assemblage represents probably five but possibly four or six individuals. These different individuals share similar dental characteristics, supporting the view that the Liang Bua H. floresiensis assemblage represents a single population. We also reassess the previous claims for primitive and modern aspects of the H. floresiensis teeth. The previous studies reached conflicting conclusions: some researchers claim that these teeth are fully modern, whereas others highlight premolar and other morphologies that suggest their direct evolutionary link with the African earliest form of Homo or Australopithecus rather than with H. erectus. Neither of these views are supported. The H. floresiensis teeth exhibit a mosaic of primitive, derived, and unique characters, with the reported primitive aspects broadly comparable to the morphologies observed in H. erectus sensu lato. Although a more comprehensive comparative analysis is needed to fully illustrate dental morphological affinities of this dwarfed hominin species, we find no grounds for the hypothesis that H. floresiensis originated from the small-bodied, primitive hominins such as H. habilis sensu lato.
著者
YOUSUKE KAIFU IWAN KURNIAWAN DAISUKE KUBO ERICK SUDIYABUDI GUNAWAN PONTJO PUTRO ENDANG PRASANTI FACHROEL AZIZ HISAO BABA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.150702, (Released:2015-10-06)
被引用文献数
1 3

Ngawi 1 is an undated but well-preserved Homo erectus calvaria from Java. Previous craniometric and morphological studies have shown its similarities to late Javanese H. erectus from Ngandong as well as Sambungmacan (Sm 1 [and Sm 3]). Some researchers emphasize their morphological homogeneity, and suggest that this ‘Ngandong/Sambungmacan/Ngawi group’ is morphologically distinct from H. erectus from the Early Pleistocene of Sangiran and Trinil, possibly at a species-level. In this study, we reinvestigated Ngawi 1 based on the newly cleaned original specimen and using micro- computed tomography with the aim of testing if such morphological discontinuity really exists within the Javanese fossil record. We metrically and non-metrically examined 33 cranial characters that are useful to distinguish earlier and later Javanese H. erectus. We also evaluated the morphology of the three Sambungmacan crania (Sm 1, 3, and 4) in the same way. The results of these and multivariate analyses support previous studies that Ngawi 1 exhibits many characteristic features of Ngandong H. erectus. However, Ngawi 1 is more or less similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in smaller cranial size, a weak but distinct supraglabellar depression, a relatively short temporal bone, limited posterior projection of the middle part of the occipital torus, a shallower and ‘roofed’ mandibular fossa, and a smaller mastoid process. The three Sambungmacan crania also show general affinities to Ngandong, but are similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in a few or more characters. Such slightly shifted character distribution is at least consistent with the hypothesis of continuous evolution of H. erectus through the Pleistocene of Java. This minor but potentially meaningful pattern of morphological variation should not be overlooked when a morphological group is defined for the specimens from Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Ngawi. We also determined the endocranial volume of Ngawi 1 to be 959 cm3.
著者
JOSÉ MARÍA BERMÚDEZ DE CASTRO MARÍA MARTINÓN-TORRES
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.122, no.3, pp.149-155, 2014 (Released:2014-12-23)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
4 8 1

The Early Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 lithostratigraphic unit of the Gran Dolina cave site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, show a mosaic of primitive and derived features. Among the latter, the modern human-like midfacial topography, as well as several synapomorphies shared with some European Middle Pleistocene hominin and Neanderthals, represents a challenge for the phylogenetic interpretation of Homo antecessor. Using an ontogenetic approach of the maxilla ATD6-69, Freidline et al. (Journal of Human Evolution, 65: 404–423 (2013)) have confirmed previous observations that H. antecessor adults had a set of facial features characterizing H. sapiens. However, Freidline and collaborators proposed that the evolution of modern-looking facial morphology occurred independently in Africa, Asia, and Europe and at several times during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Following their line of reasoning, the presence in H. antecessor of some features shared with the European Middle Pleistocene hominins and the Neanderthal lineage could also be interpreted as convergences. However, instead of supposing multiple, parallel evolution, we suggest that a more parsimonious interpretation envisages the hypothetical existence of an Early Pleistocene hominin population, from which several hominin lineages originate and inherit particular combinations of derived features. The TD6 hominins probably represent a side branch of this cladogenetic event, which evolved in Western Europe.
著者
YOUSUKE KAIFU IWAN KURNIAWAN DAISUKE KUBO ERICK SUDIYABUDI GUNAWAN PONTJO PUTRO ENDANG PRASANTI FACHROEL AZIZ HISAO BABA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.3, pp.161-176, 2015 (Released:2015-12-19)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
3 3

Ngawi 1 is an undated but well-preserved Homo erectus calvaria from Java. Previous craniometric and morphological studies have shown its similarities to late Javanese H. erectus from Ngandong as well as Sambungmacan (Sm 1 [and Sm 3]). Some researchers emphasize their morphological homogeneity, and suggest that this ‘Ngandong/Sambungmacan/Ngawi group’ is morphologically distinct from H. erectus from the Early Pleistocene of Sangiran and Trinil, possibly at a species-level. In this study, we reinvestigated Ngawi 1 based on the newly cleaned original specimen and using micro-computed tomography with the aim of testing if such morphological discontinuity really exists within the Javanese fossil record. We metrically and non-metrically examined 33 cranial characters that are useful to distinguish earlier and later Javanese H. erectus. We also evaluated the morphology of the three Sambungmacan crania (Sm 1, 3, and 4) in the same way. The results of these and multivariate analyses support previous studies that Ngawi 1 exhibits many characteristic features of Ngandong H. erectus. However, Ngawi 1 is more or less similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in smaller cranial size, a weak but distinct supraglabellar depression, a relatively short temporal bone, limited posterior projection of the middle part of the occipital torus, a shallower and ‘roofed’ mandibular fossa, and a smaller mastoid process. The three Sambungmacan crania also show general affinities to Ngandong, but are similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in a few or more characters. Such slightly shifted character distribution is at least consistent with the hypothesis of continuous evolution of H. erectus through the Pleistocene of Java. This minor but potentially meaningful pattern of morphological variation should not be overlooked when a morphological group is defined for the specimens from Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Ngawi. We also determined the endocranial volume of Ngawi 1 to be 959 cm3.
著者
D. CESANA O.J. BENEDICTOW R. BIANUCCI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.125, no.1, pp.15-24, 2017 (Released:2017-04-27)
参考文献数
68
被引用文献数
2

Spread by infected galleys coming from Kaffa (Crimea), the Black Death reached Genoa, as it now seems, in the late summer of 1347 AD. Genoa functioned as an epicentre from which the contagion was spread into the mainland through a complex system of routes, which linked Liguria to northern and central Italy. Along these routes various institutions were found, namely ‘ospitali’ (hospitals) and ‘stationes’ (stations), where traders and pilgrims stopped to rest and recuperate. In 2006 a multiple burial archaeologically dated to the second half/end of the 14th century was discovered in the cemetery pertaining to the ‘ospitale’ of San Nicolao (Genoa). The excavation showed that it contained the remains of four individuals: a 38–40 week pregnant woman with her fetus and two sub-adults. Stratigraphy showed that these individuals were buried simultaneously. Given that the dating of the burial fits the arrival of the Second Pandemic in Europe, it was hypothesized that they might have died during the Black Death epidemic. The identification of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen in three of four individuals corroborated this hypothesis. Here we report the first evidence of Y. pestis infection in 14th-century Liguria and discuss the possible mechanisms of plague dissemination from Genoa into the surrounding regions. In fact, the ‘ospitale’ of San Nicolao, located at 792 m a.s.l. into the Bracco Massif, was used as a resting place/hostel by traders and travellers (e.g. pilgrims heading for Rome). This ‘ospitale’ represented a key point leading into a system of pathways forming the initial part of the Vie Romee better known under the name of Via Francigena in the Italian territory and, as a consequence, was the ideal site from which plague could be disseminated.
著者
YOUICHI SATO TOSHIKATSU SHINKA ASHRAF A. EWIS AIKO YAMAUCHI TERUAKI IWAMOTO YUTAKA NAKAHORI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.122, no.3, pp.131-136, 2014 (Released:2014-12-23)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
4 5

Japanese people are widely believed to be the descendants of the Jomon and Yayoi people. The dual-structure model, which attempts to explain the formation of the Japanese population, hypothesizes that the indigenous Jomon people migrated from the northern island of Hokkaido and the Ryukyu Islands to the other islands of Japan, where they resided before the Yayoi started to arrive in Kyushu (the westernmost main island of the Japanese archipelago) from the Korean peninsula. Regarding Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms, it is assumed that Jomon males frequently belong to haplogroups C or D, while Yayoi males frequently belong to haplogroup O. These findings suggest that the frequencies of haplogroup C, D, and O might differ between Hokkaido and northern Kyushu males and exhibit geographical gradients in Japan. However, the data of Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies in modern Japanese males is still limited. Here, we investigated whether the frequency of Y chromosome haplogroups differs between males from different regions of Japan. We recruited 2390 males from nine populations in seven cities in mainland Japan and typed their Y chromosome haplogroups. We did not detect any marked variability in the frequencies of these haplogroups among Japanese males, except for a difference between Nagasaki and Kawasaki students. In conclusion, modern Japanese males appear to be genetically homogenized in mainland Japan because of genetic drift and recent frequent gene flow.
著者
HIDEAKI KANZAWA-KIRIYAMA TIMOTHY A. JINAM YOSUKE KAWAI TAKEHIRO SATO KAZUYOSHI HOSOMICHI ATSUSHI TAJIMA NOBORU ADACHI HIROFUMI MATSUMURA KIRILL KRYUKOV NARUYA SAITOU KEN-ICHI SHINODA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.127, no.2, pp.83-108, 2019 (Released:2019-08-29)
参考文献数
139
被引用文献数
1 5

The Funadomari Jomon people were hunter-gatherers living on Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan c. 3500–3800 years ago. In this study, we determined the high-depth and low-depth nuclear genome sequences from a Funadomari Jomon female (F23) and male (F5), respectively. We genotyped the nuclear DNA of F23 and determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I genotypes and the phenotypic traits. Moreover, a pathogenic mutation in the CPT1A gene was identified in both F23 and F5. The mutation provides metabolic advantages for consumption of a high-fat diet, and its allele frequency is more than 70% in Arctic populations, but is absent elsewhere. This variant may be related to the lifestyle of the Funadomari Jomon people, who fished and hunted land and marine animals. We observed high homozygosity by descent (HBD) in F23, but HBD tracts longer than 10 cM were very limited, suggesting that the population size of Northern Jomon populations were small. Our analysis suggested that population size of the Jomon people started to decrease c. 50000 years ago. The phylogenetic relationship among F23, modern/ancient Eurasians, and Native Americans showed a deep divergence of F23 in East Eurasia, probably before the split of the ancestor of Native Americans from East Eurasians, but after the split of 40000-year-old Tianyuan, indicating that the Northern Jomon people were genetically isolated from continental East Eurasians for a long period. Intriguingly, we found that modern Japanese as well as Ulchi, Korean, aboriginal Taiwanese, and Philippine populations were genetically closer to F23 than to Han Chinese. Moreover, the Y chromosome of F5 belonged to haplogroup D1b2b, which is rare in modern Japanese populations. These findings provided insights into the history and reconstructions of the ancient human population structures in East Eurasia, and the F23 genome data can be considered as the Jomon Reference Genome for future studies.
著者
EMILIANO BRUNER OSBJORN PEARSON
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.120927, (Released:2012-12-27)
被引用文献数
15 26 4

Jebel Irhoud 1 represents an almost complete cranium from the North African late Middle Pleistocene. Despite the good preservation of most of its anatomical regions, its phylogenetic position is still uncertain, particularly its relationship to the emergence of the modern human lineage. The present paper supplies a basic morphometric description and comparison of the endocast of Jebel Irhoud 1. The endocast’s maximum width is large when compared with the hemispheric length, with values similar to those of Neandertals. Conversely, the frontal width is less pronounced, showing proportions compatible with modern and non-modern human taxa. The vertical proportions are similar to those displayed by Homo erectus, while the lateral proportions are comparable to Neandertals. Furthermore, the upper parietal areas show a certain parasagittal lateral bulging, as in European Neandertals. It remains to be established if this trait evolved independently in both the Neandertal and modern human lineages, or if it was already present in a common ancestor of these two groups. Given that Jebel Irhoud 1 in North Africa and Herto in East Africa have similar geological age, similar facial morphology, but different vault proportions, it seems likely that the origin of the modern human lineage may have predated the origin of many aspects of the modern human brain.
著者
KATSUHIKO OHNUMA KENICHI AOKI AND TAKERU AKAZAWA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.3, pp.159-168, 1997 (Released:2010-10-21)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
17 27

We describe a series of preliminary experiments undertaken to investi-gate the relationship between complicated tool-making and the presence or absence of language in its communicative role. The experiments involved teaching two groups of university students how to make Levallois flakes by either verbal or non-verbal demonstration. The rates and mean times of acquisition of the Levallois technique and of successful flake production were compared. They did not differ significantly between the two groups. From these results, we infer that spoken language was not indispensable for Levallois flake production in the Middle Palaeolithic.
著者
JOSÉ MARÍA BERMÚDEZ DE CASTRO MARÍA MARTINÓN-TORRES
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.140827, (Released:2014-11-18)
被引用文献数
4 8

The Early Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 lithostratigraphic unit of the Gran Dolina cave site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, show a mosaic of primitive and derived features. Among the latter, the modern human-like midfacial topography, as well as several synapomorphies shared with some European Middle Pleistocene hominin and Neanderthals, represents a challenge for the phylogenetic interpretation of Homo antecessor. Using an ontogenetic approach of the maxilla ATD6-69, Freidline et al. (Journal of Human Evolution, 65: 404–423 (2013)) have confirmed previous observations that H. antecessor adults had a set of facial features characterizing H. sapiens. However, Freidline and collaborators proposed that the evolution of modern-looking facial morphology occurred independently in Africa, Asia, and Europe and at several times during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Following their line of reasoning, the presence in H. antecessor of some features shared with the European Middle Pleistocene hominins and the Neanderthal lineage could also be interpreted as convergences. However, instead of supposing multiple, parallel evolution, we suggest that a more parsimonious interpretation envisages the hypothetical existence of an Early Pleistocene hominin population, from which several hominin lineages originate and inherit particular combinations of derived features. The TD6 hominins probably represent a side branch of this cladogenetic event, which evolved in Western Europe.
著者
EMILIANO BRUNER OSBJORN PEARSON
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.121, no.1, pp.31-41, 2013 (Released:2013-04-23)
参考文献数
76
被引用文献数
7 26

Jebel Irhoud 1 represents an almost complete cranium from the North African late Middle Pleistocene. Despite the good preservation of most of its anatomical regions, its phylogenetic position is still uncertain, particularly its relationship to the emergence of the modern human lineage. The present paper supplies a basic morphometric description and comparison of the endocast of Jebel Irhoud 1. The endocast’s maximum width is large when compared with the hemispheric length, with values similar to those of Neandertals. Conversely, the frontal width is less pronounced, showing proportions compatible with modern and non-modern human taxa. The vertical proportions are similar to those displayed by Homo erectus, while the lateral proportions are comparable to Neandertals. Furthermore, the upper parietal areas show a certain parasagittal lateral bulging, as in European Neandertals. It remains to be established if this trait evolved independently in both the Neandertal and modern human lineages, or if it was already present in a common ancestor of these two groups. Given that Jebel Irhoud 1 in North Africa and Herto in East Africa have similar geological age, similar facial morphology, but different vault proportions, it seems likely that the origin of the modern human lineage may have predated the origin of many aspects of the modern human brain.
著者
HIDEAKI KANZAWA-KIRIYAMA TIMOTHY A. JINAM YOSUKE KAWAI TAKEHIRO SATO KAZUYOSHI HOSOMICHI ATSUSHI TAJIMA NOBORU ADACHI HIROFUMI MATSUMURA KIRILL KRYUKOV NARUYA SAITOU KEN-ICHI SHINODA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.190415, (Released:2019-05-29)
被引用文献数
1 5

The Funadomari Jomon people were hunter-gatherers living on Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan c. 3500–3800 years ago. In this study, we determined the high-depth and low-depth nuclear genome sequences from a Funadomari Jomon female (F23) and male (F5), respectively. We genotyped the nuclear DNA of F23 and determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I genotypes and the phenotypic traits. Moreover, a pathogenic mutation in the CPT1A gene was identified in both F23 and F5. The mutation provides metabolic advantages for consumption of a high-fat diet, and its allele frequency is more than 70% in Arctic populations, but is absent elsewhere. This variant may be related to the lifestyle of the Funadomari Jomon people, who fished and hunted land and marine animals. We observed high homozygosity by descent (HBD) in F23, but HBD tracts longer than 10 cM were very limited, suggesting that the population size of Northern Jomon populations were small. Our analysis suggested that population size of the Jomon people started to decrease c. 50000 years ago. The phylogenetic relationship among F23, modern/ancient Eurasians, and Native Americans showed a deep divergence of F23 in East Eurasia, probably before the split of the ancestor of Native Americans from East Eurasians, but after the split of 40000-year-old Tianyuan, indicating that the Northern Jomon people were genetically isolated from continental East Eurasians for a long period. Intriguingly, we found that modern Japanese as well as Ulchi, Korean, aboriginal Taiwanese, and Philippine populations were genetically closer to F23 than to Han Chinese. Moreover, the Y chromosome of F5 belonged to haplogroup D1b2b, which is rare in modern Japanese populations. These findings provided insights into the history and reconstructions of the ancient human population structures in East Eurasia, and the F23 genome data can be considered as the Jomon Reference Genome for future studies.
著者
JACOB C. DUNN
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.180309, (Released:2018-04-03)

One noteworthy, but unexplained, aspect of the evolution of human speech is the loss of laryngeal air sacs during hominin evolution. Very little is known about the adaptive significance of this curious trait, or the selection pressures that may have driven the evolution of air sacs among primates, and their later loss in Homo. Here, I review the literature on the loss of laryngeal air sacs during the evolution of speech, and argue that sexual selection may have been a key factor. Although air sacs do not fossilize, the presence or absence of air sacs appears to be correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, and fossil hyoid evidence suggests that air sacs were lost in hominins between 3.3 million and 530000 years ago. Air sacs are hypothesized to have an acoustic function, and some authors have argued that hominins may have lost their air sacs because they would make speech less clear. In other primates, such as gorillas and howler monkeys, air sacs appear to play a role in acoustic size exaggeration and may be linked to reproductive competition. I explore the hypothesis that changes in social organization and mating system towards reduced male–male competition may have relaxed the selection pressure maintaining loud, low-frequency calls in hominins, making air sacs obsolete. While much of the above will remain hypothetical until more concrete data are gathered, we can speculate by saying that air sacs may not have been necessary for the type of quiet vocal interaction that typifies human communication. Perhaps more recent Homo species, with lower levels of sexual dimorphism and increased social tolerance and complexity, began to communicate in a more complex way, eventually leading to spoken language.
著者
地土井 健太郎
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.5, pp.293-317, 1997 (Released:2010-10-21)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
1

縄文時代早期に属すると推定されてきた岩手県蛇王洞洞穴出土人骨の性別, 死亡時年齢, 所属年代, および形態的特徴を調査した。年代推定については形態学的検討に加えて骨コラーゲンの放射性炭素測定を行った結果, 本人骨が縄文時代早期に属することが確実となった。そこでその個体的特徴を従来指摘されてきた早期人の諸特徴と比較検討してみたところ, 本人骨は全体として繊細であることなど, 概ね従来の指摘通りの形態的特徴を示した。しかしその一方で下顎を含めた顔面下部の形態, 脛骨後面の形態など, 平均的な早期人から逸脱した特徴も備えていることが明らかとなった。
著者
NAOMICHI OGIHARA HIDEKI AMANO TAKEO KIKUCHI YUSUKE MORITA KUNIHIRO HASEGAWA TAKANORI KOCHIYAMA HIROKI C. TANABE
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.1, pp.57-68, 2015 (Released:2015-04-23)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
4 12 2

In order to discuss possible differences in brain anatomy between Neanderthals and early modern humans, the original antemortem appearance of fossil crania that enclosed the brain must somehow be correctly restored, as soft tissues such as the brain are generally not fossilized. However, crania are typically fractured, fragmented, and deformed due to compaction and diagenesis. Furthermore, recovery of all component fragments of fossil crania is rare. Restoration of the brain morphology of fossil crania therefore necessitates correct assembly of the available fragments, eliminating distortions, and compensating for missing parts as a first step. This paper reviews the current status of computerized reconstruction methods, then provides an overview and future directions toward digital reconstruction of fossil crania and the associated brain morphology.
著者
TOMO TAKANO MASATO NAKATSUKASA MARTA PINA YUTAKA KUNIMATSU YOSHIHIKO NAKANO NAOKI MORIMOTO NAOMICHI OGIHARA HIDEMI ISHIDA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.200116, (Released:2020-03-17)

This article reports eight new humeral, ulnar, and radial fragments of Nacholapithecus kerioi collected from Nachola, Kenya during the 1998/1999 field seasons. The study refines the description of its forelimb bones, which was mostly based on a single partial skeleton. The most distinctive feature of the distal humerus is a large, globular, medially tilted capitulum. The groove between the capitulum and the zona conoidea is quite deep. The medial part of the humeral trochlea is also diagnostic in showing a less salient medial border. The medial epicondyle is moderately long and more posteriorly reflected than was previously presumed. The coronoid process of the ulna is quite wide. Its medial portion is distinctly concave. The ulnar shaft is anteroposteriorly deep in its proximal half, slender, straight in frontal view, and weakly anteriorly bowing. The elbow of Nacholapithecus exhibits a primitive functional pattern as a hominoid, including lack of universal stability of the humeroulnar joint through full extension and flexion, restriction of hyperextension of the elbow, and relatively anteroposteriorly oriented loading at the proximal ulna. On the other hand, it is derived in terms of enhanced rotational mobility and stability of the radius, incipiently increased stability at the humeroulnar joint, and more frequent maximum extension of the elbow compared to proconsulids. This mosaic morphology is different from both early Miocene proconsulids and later suspensory or orthograde European fossil apes. Although Nacholapithecus was neither suspensory nor orthograde, its forelimbs may have played a greater role for body support or balance maintenance, more frequently reaching to and exploiting overhead supports than in early Miocene proconsulids.
著者
TAKUMI TSUTAYA MINORU YONEDA MIKIKO ABE TOMOHITO NAGAOKA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.190403, (Released:2019-06-21)

The reconstruction of everyday diets in villages is important for understanding the diversity of diets and commerce networks of food items in premodern Japan. However, premodern diets in villages have not been well studied compared with those in cities. In this study, stable isotope analyses were performed on 23 adult human skeletons excavated from Sendaiji, a mountainous woodland village of underground Christians in Osaka in premodern Japan. No significant isotopic differences was found between individuals identified as Buddhists and those identified as Christians or between females and males. The total mean carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were –21.1 ± 0.4‰, 11.6 ± 1.0‰, and 8.9 ± 1.3‰, respectively. The carbon isotope ratios in Sendaiji were the lowest among the studied premodern populations probably because these individuals consumed woodland foods that are affected by the canopy effect. No significant correlation between sulfur and nitrogen isotope ratios was apparent, suggesting that there was little contribution from marine foods or marine fertilizers to the diet of individuals in premodern Sendaiji. The relatively high nitrogen isotope ratios in Sendaiji were possibly because of the denitrification in paddy rice fields, ammonium uptake by paddy rice, use of animal fertilizers, and/or consumption of freshwater fish. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed bioarchaeological study of the premodern diet in a mountainous village in western Japan.
著者
LEYRE PRADO-SIMÓN MARÍA MARTINÓN-TORRES PILAR BACA AIDA GÓMEZ-ROBLES MARÍA LAPRESA EUDALD CARBONELL JOSÉ MARIA BERMÚDEZ DE CASTRO
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1111170119-1111170119, (Released:2011-11-19)
被引用文献数
4 11

The recent application of microtomographic techniques to dental morphological studies has revealed an untapped source of biological information about extinct and extant human populations. In particular, this methodology has helped to characterize internal dental structures (enamel–dentine junction, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), maximizing the amount of information that can be extracted from a given specimen. In this study, we present a three-dimensional evaluation of the dental roots of the Sima del Elefante mandible, ATE9-1 (Atapuerca, Spain) by visual inspection, and by tomographic and microtomographic techniques. With 1.3 Myrs of age, this fossil represents the earliest hominin remains in Europe, and one of the very few human fossils for this period and region. Through this case study we aim to present a protocol for the description of the internal dental spaces, exemplify how the application of microtomographic techniques can significantly increase the amount of relevant and informative morphological features (even in the case of fragmentary/heavily worn teeth or teeth with hypercementosis), and explore some biological considerations about external and internal root morphology. There is neither a general nor straightforward correspondence between the external root morphology and the root canals. In cases where a high degree of hypercementosis is present, the external root anatomy can be highly confusing. Indeed the assessment of the internal root anatomy of ATE9-1 teeth has led us to the reclassification of the LC and the LP3 with respect to previous publications. The results of this study suggest that internal root anatomy could be used as a complementary source of biological information.
著者
FRANCK GUY RENAUD BOISTEL NICOLAS LENOIR LOUIS DE BONIS
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.150624, (Released:2015-09-30)
被引用文献数
3

The HRD1 hominin maxilla was discovered during fieldwork carried out in the Republic of Djibouti, eastern Africa, in the 1980s. The HRD1 specimen is attributed to the genus Homo and has been dated from the Early to the Middle Pleistocene. This paper presents a detailed morphological and quantitative description of the HRD1 maxilla. The morphology of the dental roots, the enamel thickness, the morphological architecture of the premaxillary–maxillary complex, and the morphology of the maxillary sinus were all examined, yielding the data provided here. The Djiboutian specimen represents one of the late Early to Middle Pleistocene occurrences of Homo in an area where Pleistocene hominins are poorly documented despite a relative abundance of lithic artefacts. However, the precise identification of the specimen remains challenging and requires additional comparative analysis.