著者
MARK J. HUDSON MAMI AOYAMA TAKAMUNE KAWASHIMA TAKAYUKI GUNJI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.116, no.1, pp.87-92, 2008 (Released:2008-04-26)
参考文献数
59
被引用文献数
1

It is proposed that the so-called ‘protruding buttock’ figurines from Middle Jomon central Japan may be representations of steatopygia. The distribution of these figurines is associated with archaeological evidence for high population densities and possible intensive use of wild yams (Dioscorea japonica). Given the low fat content of these yams, it is suggested that nutritional stress in the diet of Middle Jomon hunter-gatherers of the Chubu highlands may be consistent with the fat accumulation on the buttocks apparently represented in the ‘protruding buttock’ figurines.
著者
YOUSUKE KAIFU IWAN KURNIAWAN DAISUKE KUBO ERICK SUDIYABUDI GUNAWAN PONTJO PUTRO ENDANG PRASANTI FACHROEL AZIZ HISAO BABA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.123, no.3, pp.161-176, 2015 (Released:2015-12-19)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
3 3

Ngawi 1 is an undated but well-preserved Homo erectus calvaria from Java. Previous craniometric and morphological studies have shown its similarities to late Javanese H. erectus from Ngandong as well as Sambungmacan (Sm 1 [and Sm 3]). Some researchers emphasize their morphological homogeneity, and suggest that this ‘Ngandong/Sambungmacan/Ngawi group’ is morphologically distinct from H. erectus from the Early Pleistocene of Sangiran and Trinil, possibly at a species-level. In this study, we reinvestigated Ngawi 1 based on the newly cleaned original specimen and using micro-computed tomography with the aim of testing if such morphological discontinuity really exists within the Javanese fossil record. We metrically and non-metrically examined 33 cranial characters that are useful to distinguish earlier and later Javanese H. erectus. We also evaluated the morphology of the three Sambungmacan crania (Sm 1, 3, and 4) in the same way. The results of these and multivariate analyses support previous studies that Ngawi 1 exhibits many characteristic features of Ngandong H. erectus. However, Ngawi 1 is more or less similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in smaller cranial size, a weak but distinct supraglabellar depression, a relatively short temporal bone, limited posterior projection of the middle part of the occipital torus, a shallower and ‘roofed’ mandibular fossa, and a smaller mastoid process. The three Sambungmacan crania also show general affinities to Ngandong, but are similar to earlier Javanese H. erectus in a few or more characters. Such slightly shifted character distribution is at least consistent with the hypothesis of continuous evolution of H. erectus through the Pleistocene of Java. This minor but potentially meaningful pattern of morphological variation should not be overlooked when a morphological group is defined for the specimens from Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Ngawi. We also determined the endocranial volume of Ngawi 1 to be 959 cm3.
著者
D. CESANA O.J. BENEDICTOW R. BIANUCCI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.125, no.1, pp.15-24, 2017 (Released:2017-04-27)
参考文献数
68
被引用文献数
2

Spread by infected galleys coming from Kaffa (Crimea), the Black Death reached Genoa, as it now seems, in the late summer of 1347 AD. Genoa functioned as an epicentre from which the contagion was spread into the mainland through a complex system of routes, which linked Liguria to northern and central Italy. Along these routes various institutions were found, namely ‘ospitali’ (hospitals) and ‘stationes’ (stations), where traders and pilgrims stopped to rest and recuperate. In 2006 a multiple burial archaeologically dated to the second half/end of the 14th century was discovered in the cemetery pertaining to the ‘ospitale’ of San Nicolao (Genoa). The excavation showed that it contained the remains of four individuals: a 38–40 week pregnant woman with her fetus and two sub-adults. Stratigraphy showed that these individuals were buried simultaneously. Given that the dating of the burial fits the arrival of the Second Pandemic in Europe, it was hypothesized that they might have died during the Black Death epidemic. The identification of Yersinia pestis F1 antigen in three of four individuals corroborated this hypothesis. Here we report the first evidence of Y. pestis infection in 14th-century Liguria and discuss the possible mechanisms of plague dissemination from Genoa into the surrounding regions. In fact, the ‘ospitale’ of San Nicolao, located at 792 m a.s.l. into the Bracco Massif, was used as a resting place/hostel by traders and travellers (e.g. pilgrims heading for Rome). This ‘ospitale’ represented a key point leading into a system of pathways forming the initial part of the Vie Romee better known under the name of Via Francigena in the Italian territory and, as a consequence, was the ideal site from which plague could be disseminated.
著者
YOUICHI SATO TOSHIKATSU SHINKA ASHRAF A. EWIS AIKO YAMAUCHI TERUAKI IWAMOTO YUTAKA NAKAHORI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.122, no.3, pp.131-136, 2014 (Released:2014-12-23)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
4 6

Japanese people are widely believed to be the descendants of the Jomon and Yayoi people. The dual-structure model, which attempts to explain the formation of the Japanese population, hypothesizes that the indigenous Jomon people migrated from the northern island of Hokkaido and the Ryukyu Islands to the other islands of Japan, where they resided before the Yayoi started to arrive in Kyushu (the westernmost main island of the Japanese archipelago) from the Korean peninsula. Regarding Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms, it is assumed that Jomon males frequently belong to haplogroups C or D, while Yayoi males frequently belong to haplogroup O. These findings suggest that the frequencies of haplogroup C, D, and O might differ between Hokkaido and northern Kyushu males and exhibit geographical gradients in Japan. However, the data of Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies in modern Japanese males is still limited. Here, we investigated whether the frequency of Y chromosome haplogroups differs between males from different regions of Japan. We recruited 2390 males from nine populations in seven cities in mainland Japan and typed their Y chromosome haplogroups. We did not detect any marked variability in the frequencies of these haplogroups among Japanese males, except for a difference between Nagasaki and Kawasaki students. In conclusion, modern Japanese males appear to be genetically homogenized in mainland Japan because of genetic drift and recent frequent gene flow.
著者
森本 岩太郎
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, no.4, pp.477-486, 1987
被引用文献数
11

打ち首(斬首)の所見が認められる古人首例は比較的少なく,偶然に発見されたとしても,頭蓋の刀創などから斬首を間接的に想定した場合が大部分を占めると思われる.著者が最近経験した鎌倉市今小路西遺跡出土の南北朝期(14世紀後半)に属する斬首された2個体分の中世頭蓋の場合は,切られた上位頸椎が一緒に残っていたので打ち首の技法がよく分かる.当時の屋敷の門付近に,A•B2個体分の頭蓋と上位頸椎だけが一緒に埋められていた.首実験後に首だけが遺族に返されず,そこに仮埋葬されたものであるらしい.2体とも男性で,年齢は A が壮年期前半,B が壮年期後半と推定される.頭蓋は無傷で,それぞれの頸椎が日本刀のような鋭利な刃物により切断されている.頭蓋と第1~3頸椎からなる男性 A の場合,切断面は第3頸椎体の前下部を右後下方から左前上方へ走って椎体の途中で止まり,その先の椎体部分は刀の衝撃によって破壊され失われている.切断面の走向からみて,第4頸椎(残存せず)を右後下方から切断した刃先が第3頸椎体に達して止まったと思われる.頭蓋と第1~4頸椎からなる男性 B の場合,主切断面は第4頸椎の中央を右からほぼ水平に走っている.切断面より上方にある右横突起と右上関節突起の上半部だけが残存し,それ以外の第4頸椎の大部分は失われている.A の場合と同様に,刃先が第4頸椎の椎体の途中で止まって,その先の部分が破壊されたものと推定される.別に第3頸椎の左下関節突起先端部から右椎弓根基部上面へ向けて椎体を左下方から右上方へ斜めに走る副切断面があり,この副切断面によって改めて首が切り離されている.失われた第3頸椎の椎弓板もこのとき壊されたと思われる.切断面の走向からみて,両個体とも,垂直に立てた頸部を横切りにされたというよりは,むしろ正座のような低い姿勢をとって前方に差し伸べた頸部を,左側やや後方に立った右利きの執刀者により切り下ろす形で右背後から鋭く切断され,絶命したと推定される.この際,首は一気に切り落とされていない.これは俗に「打ち首はクビの前皮一枚を残すのが定法」と言われるところに近似の所見であり,この技法の確立が中世までさかのぼり得るものであることが分かる.2体とも最初に第4頸椎部を正確に切断され,頭蓋には刀創の見られないところから,同一の練達者によって斬首されたと推測されるが,切られたほうも死を覚悟した武士であったかも知れない.英国のSutton Walls 出土の鉄器時代人骨における斬首例のように,首を刀で一気に切り離すのが昔のヨーロッパ流のやり方とすれば,中世における日本の打ち首では頸部を後方から半切して処刑する点にその特徴があると思われる.
著者
EMILIANO BRUNER OSBJORN PEARSON
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.120927, (Released:2012-12-27)
被引用文献数
15 28 4

Jebel Irhoud 1 represents an almost complete cranium from the North African late Middle Pleistocene. Despite the good preservation of most of its anatomical regions, its phylogenetic position is still uncertain, particularly its relationship to the emergence of the modern human lineage. The present paper supplies a basic morphometric description and comparison of the endocast of Jebel Irhoud 1. The endocast’s maximum width is large when compared with the hemispheric length, with values similar to those of Neandertals. Conversely, the frontal width is less pronounced, showing proportions compatible with modern and non-modern human taxa. The vertical proportions are similar to those displayed by Homo erectus, while the lateral proportions are comparable to Neandertals. Furthermore, the upper parietal areas show a certain parasagittal lateral bulging, as in European Neandertals. It remains to be established if this trait evolved independently in both the Neandertal and modern human lineages, or if it was already present in a common ancestor of these two groups. Given that Jebel Irhoud 1 in North Africa and Herto in East Africa have similar geological age, similar facial morphology, but different vault proportions, it seems likely that the origin of the modern human lineage may have predated the origin of many aspects of the modern human brain.
著者
KATSUHIKO OHNUMA KENICHI AOKI AND TAKERU AKAZAWA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.105, no.3, pp.159-168, 1997 (Released:2010-10-21)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
23 27

We describe a series of preliminary experiments undertaken to investi-gate the relationship between complicated tool-making and the presence or absence of language in its communicative role. The experiments involved teaching two groups of university students how to make Levallois flakes by either verbal or non-verbal demonstration. The rates and mean times of acquisition of the Levallois technique and of successful flake production were compared. They did not differ significantly between the two groups. From these results, we infer that spoken language was not indispensable for Levallois flake production in the Middle Palaeolithic.
著者
鈴木 隆雄 峰山 巌 三橋 公平
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.92, no.2, pp.87-104, 1984-04-15 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2 4

北海道西南部の内浦湾に所在する入江貝塚から出土した,縄文時代後期に属する成人骨格の四肢骨に明らかな病理学的所見が認められたので報告する。この個体(入江9号人骨)は思春期後半に相当する年令段階にあると考えられるが,その四肢長骨は総て著しい横径成熟障害を示し,また長期の筋萎縮に続発したと考えられる骨の著明な廃用萎縮を呈していた。このような長骨の形態異常は長期に経過する筋麻痺を主体とした疾病の罹患によってもたらされるものと考えられるが,そのような疾患について,好発年令,発生頻度,麻痺分布,生命予后などの点から考察した。その結果,この入江9号人骨にみられた四肢骨病変の原疾患として急性灰白髄炎(急性脊髄前角炎,ポリオ,小児マヒ)が最も強く疑われた。
著者
JACOB C. DUNN
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.180309, (Released:2018-04-03)

One noteworthy, but unexplained, aspect of the evolution of human speech is the loss of laryngeal air sacs during hominin evolution. Very little is known about the adaptive significance of this curious trait, or the selection pressures that may have driven the evolution of air sacs among primates, and their later loss in Homo. Here, I review the literature on the loss of laryngeal air sacs during the evolution of speech, and argue that sexual selection may have been a key factor. Although air sacs do not fossilize, the presence or absence of air sacs appears to be correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, and fossil hyoid evidence suggests that air sacs were lost in hominins between 3.3 million and 530000 years ago. Air sacs are hypothesized to have an acoustic function, and some authors have argued that hominins may have lost their air sacs because they would make speech less clear. In other primates, such as gorillas and howler monkeys, air sacs appear to play a role in acoustic size exaggeration and may be linked to reproductive competition. I explore the hypothesis that changes in social organization and mating system towards reduced male–male competition may have relaxed the selection pressure maintaining loud, low-frequency calls in hominins, making air sacs obsolete. While much of the above will remain hypothetical until more concrete data are gathered, we can speculate by saying that air sacs may not have been necessary for the type of quiet vocal interaction that typifies human communication. Perhaps more recent Homo species, with lower levels of sexual dimorphism and increased social tolerance and complexity, began to communicate in a more complex way, eventually leading to spoken language.
著者
森本岩 太郎
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.97, no.2, pp.169-187, 1989 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
12

早稲田大学古代エジプト調査隊の一員として,1983年から1986年までの3回にわたる野外調査において,エジプト•ルクソール市西岸クルナ村にあるいわゆる「貴族の墓」317号および178号両墓から発見された古代エジプト男性ミイラ18体(成人15•小児3)の外陰部を観察した。これらのミイラは新王国第18王朝時代からプトレマイオス朝時代まで,すなわち約1550~30B.C.のものであり,墓泥棒によってひそかに両墓に運び込まれ,身にまとう金銀宝飾を目当てに包帯を解かれ,ばらばらに解体されたものと思われる。18体のミイラのうち,成人3体の外陰部は布で包まれており観察できなかった。外陰部の包み方は,陰茎を他から独立させて布で覆う方法がとられていた。また成人1体の陰茎は墓泥棒により破壊されていた。外陰部を観察できた14体のうち,成人11体中3体(26.3%),小児3体中2体(66.7%)の外陰部が自然の状態に保存されていた。LECA (1980)によれば古代エジプトミイラの外陰部は保存するのが通例であるというから,今回の調査で得られた保存率は異常に低いものであると言える。小児の亀頭包皮の有無は確認できなかったが,成人3体では全例に包皮が存在しなかった。HERODOTUS(紀元前5世紀)の記載や,サソカラのアンク7ホール墓の壁画などに見られるように,エジプトではそのころ思春期の男子に広く割礼が行われたと思われる。成人5体では陰茎が切り取られていた。1体は完全切除,他の4体は部分的切除であった。成人3体と小児1体では陰茎が長く引き伸ばされていた。そのうちの2体(成人1•小児1)では陰嚢を引き伸ばして作った棒状の台の上に陰茎を乗せて支え,他の成人1体では陰嚢を圧延して作った薄板により陰茎を包んでいた.また成人1体では陰茎•陰嚢をかたどった小さな模型(樹脂製•金塗色)が外陰部の直下に置かれていた。ミイラ作りにおける陰茎切除の理由ないし起源について,LECA はどのような思案も浮かばないという。しかし,拙考によれば,ミイラ作りの際における上記の陰茎切除•陰嚢変形•外陰部模型使用などの男性外陰部に対する特別の配慮と処置は,古代エジプト神話において女神イシスが彼女の夫である男神オシリスの身体の復元を志した時,ナイル川に捨てられて蟹に食われてしまった夫の外陰部だけが発見できなかったこと,また夫の外陰部の代わりにその模型を用いて夫の身体の完全復元に成功し,ついにオシリスが永遠の生命を得た(ミイラ作りの起源と言えよう)という物語りに起因するものと思われる。
著者
木下 太志
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.98, no.3, pp.317-336, 1990-07-31 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
2 2

山形県天童市の旧山家村に残る1760年から1870年にわたる宗門改帳を使って,江戸時代における東北地方の農民の結婚と出生を分析した。結婚に関しては,男子の場合,初婚年齢,既婚率ともに経済的要因によって強く影響されるが,女子の場合にはこのことは必ずしも言えない。この理由として,男女間の社会的,経済的地位の差が考えられる。また,山家村の出生率は時代とともに増加しているが,これは主に有配偶出生率の増加に起因し,生涯未婚率の低下が補助的に出生率の増加に寄与している。出生率の増加には,労働形態の変化,雇用機会の増大,賃金の上昇等が関与しているものと考えられろ。
著者
TOMO TAKANO MASATO NAKATSUKASA MARTA PINA YUTAKA KUNIMATSU YOSHIHIKO NAKANO NAOKI MORIMOTO NAOMICHI OGIHARA HIDEMI ISHIDA
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.200116, (Released:2020-03-17)

This article reports eight new humeral, ulnar, and radial fragments of Nacholapithecus kerioi collected from Nachola, Kenya during the 1998/1999 field seasons. The study refines the description of its forelimb bones, which was mostly based on a single partial skeleton. The most distinctive feature of the distal humerus is a large, globular, medially tilted capitulum. The groove between the capitulum and the zona conoidea is quite deep. The medial part of the humeral trochlea is also diagnostic in showing a less salient medial border. The medial epicondyle is moderately long and more posteriorly reflected than was previously presumed. The coronoid process of the ulna is quite wide. Its medial portion is distinctly concave. The ulnar shaft is anteroposteriorly deep in its proximal half, slender, straight in frontal view, and weakly anteriorly bowing. The elbow of Nacholapithecus exhibits a primitive functional pattern as a hominoid, including lack of universal stability of the humeroulnar joint through full extension and flexion, restriction of hyperextension of the elbow, and relatively anteroposteriorly oriented loading at the proximal ulna. On the other hand, it is derived in terms of enhanced rotational mobility and stability of the radius, incipiently increased stability at the humeroulnar joint, and more frequent maximum extension of the elbow compared to proconsulids. This mosaic morphology is different from both early Miocene proconsulids and later suspensory or orthograde European fossil apes. Although Nacholapithecus was neither suspensory nor orthograde, its forelimbs may have played a greater role for body support or balance maintenance, more frequently reaching to and exploiting overhead supports than in early Miocene proconsulids.
著者
CLARE MCFADDEN BRITTA VAN TIEL MARC F. OXENHAM
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2005051, (Released:2020-08-04)

This paper seeks to provide a stabilized (i.e. less vulnerable to differences in sex representation) equation for estimating maternal mortality for biased skeletal samples. The stabilized equation is developed and tested on the United Nations data used to develop the original method (McFadden and Oxenham, Current Anthropology, 60(1), 141–146), and is applied to 16 bioarchaeological samples from mainland Southeast Asia. First-order correlations and basic descriptive statistics were applied to the data. The stabilized equation was comparable in accuracy to the original equation. When applied to bioarchaeological samples, it proved to be advantageous where the sex ratio differed by more than 0.15 in either direction (i.e. more females or more males). The stabilized equation is an improvement over the original equation for samples that exhibit sex bias that is randomly distributed by age. This method extends the potential applications of the maternal mortality estimator.
著者
埴原 恒彦
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.99, no.3, pp.345-361, 1991 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
57
被引用文献数
5 10

アイヌの起源に関しては,コーカソイド起源説,オーストラロイド起源説,モンゴロイド起源説など,考え得るほとんど全ての説が提出された.しかし,今日では,アイヌが縄文人の直系の子孫であることはほぼ確実視されている.一方,近世アイヌの成立に関しては,一般には,本州の縄文人を主体とし,それに北海道東部の縄文人やサハリン,千島からの外来要素が加わって,その形質的特徴が形成されたと考えられている.このような結果はおそらく,モヨロ貝塚や大岬から出土したオホーツク文化期人骨の北方的な形質的特徴によるものであろう.しかし,筆者は,少なくとも近世アイヌの形質に関しては北方的要素,すなわち寒冷地適応を示す特徴はほとんど見られないのではないか,と考え,アイヌの起源と分化について歯冠形質に基づき,再調査した.分析の結果,北海道南西部,中部,東北部のアイヌ,更に,サハリンアイヌは,続縄文人と共に,本州の縄文人ときわめて類似するが,時代的に続縄文人と近世アイヌの間に位置する大岬人骨は,従来の主張通り,北方アジア人にきわめて近い形質を有することが,歯冠形質にっいても明かとなった.このことは,確かに北海道にも北方からの渡来があったことを示していよう.モヨロ人骨,大岬人骨に代表されるオホーツク文化は12世紀頃に忽然と消えてしまうが,本分析結果から,彼らが先住民であるアイヌにほぼ完全に吸収されてしまったか,あるいは適応に失敗し,事実上は消滅してしまったものと考えられる.以上のことから,近世アイヌの成立にっいては,北方からの外来要素を考慮するよりは,むしろ縄文人の形質を主体とし,その後2千数百年間の,環境と文化の影響下における小進化として説明するのが最も妥当であると考えられる.アリゾナ州立大学の C.G. ターナー教授が,縄文人の源流を,後期更新世にスンダランドで進化してきた集団に求め得るとしていることは,よく知られている.今回得られた結果は,上記の,スンダランドのいわば仮想集団が,形質的には,現在のネグリトに代表されるような,東南アジアにおける最も基層的集団 (generalized Asiatic populations)に類似していたのではないかという筆者の主張と矛盾するものではないと思われる.
著者
平本 嘉助
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.3, pp.221-236, 1972 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
16 16

関東地方の縄文時代より近代初期まで,各時代人の平均身長を推定し,これに既発表の現代人の生体計測による資料を加えて縄文時代より現代までの身長の時代変化を検討した.繩文時代より近代初期(明治維新より1900年まで)までの各時代人の推定身長は大腿骨をもちいた身長推定式によって算出した.推定式は藤井(1960)の報告による大腿骨最大長の身長推定式をもちいた.結果は男女ともに繩文時代人より古墳時代人が大きく,以降,鎌倉時代,室町時代,江戸時代,そして近代初期へと順次身長が低下してきたことが推測される。そして現代においては急激な身長の増加が生じている.また現代人の身長は古墳時代人よりも大きくなっている.
著者
栗栖 浩二郎
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.3, pp.103-119, 1967 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
34

Since 1962 a serial excavation of Usu shell-mound in Hokkaido has been made by Prof. KoHAMA and his staffs of Osaka University. Their efforts have resulted in recovery of many human skeletal and cultural remains belonging to the six cul-tural periods, namely, epi-Jomon (Kamegaoka), succesive period of Jomon (Esan), Satsumon pottery period, Muromachi-Momoyama period, early and late period of Edo era. These remains are expected to serve to solve the pending problems when and whence did ancestors of Ainus migrate to Hokkaido.The present study intended to solve some of the problems above mentioned, with the metrical and observational investigations of three skulls of the remains of Muromachi-Momoyama period, and to determine racial affinity of them. These three skulls showed many ainoid characteristics, namely, l) dolicocrany, 2) simple serration of sutures, 3) square-shaped orbits, 4) rounded lower margines of man-dible and 5) broad ramus, while there were some measurements and indices which deviate considerably from those of Ainus. In order to determine to which race they belong, the author used the discriminant function with which each skull was classified into one of three groups (Ainu, Kinki-Japanese and Tohoku-Japanese) and the result showed that all skulls were classified into Ainu.The fluorine method for determination of the relative antiquity of bone has not been considered as a strict method because there are variabilities even in bones which belong to same period. But, if data of fluorine contents from a number of samples are statistically analysed, it may be possible to determine the period of samples. Fragments from twelve individuals of each period were used for fluorine determination. It was concluded that, in spite of passable variability of fluorine contents in same individual and same period, there was increasing tendency of fluorine with burial age and fluorine contents of bones of epi-Jomon could be statistically distinguished from those of the periods after Satsumon.
著者
石原 房雄
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.4, pp.119-125, 1969-08-30 (Released:2010-06-28)
参考文献数
4
被引用文献数
1 1
著者
渡辺 誠
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, no.1, pp.19-46, 1966-04-10 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
74

1. In the Jomon Period, Neolithic culture of Japan, 495 fish-hooks have been recovered from 77 sites, of which 430 are one-piece hooks, and 65 two-piece hooks. However, no composite hook has ever been found.2. One-piece hooks are classified into six types: (1) non-barbed; (2) out-barbed; (3) in-barbed; (4) both-barbed; (5) stem-barbed; (6) anker-type, and of these hooks non-barbed and out-barbed are most popular. In other words, it may well be said that these six types can be classified into two groups such as non-barbed (Type 1) and barbed (Type 2-6). In general, it can be said that the former, taking the form of medium size (3-5 cm.), has been found throughout the Jomon Period and widely distributed. The latter, however, has made a remarkable progress since the later phase of the Stage 3 (i, e. Jomon Period is divided into five stages), and includes many large-sized specimens beside the medium-sized ones. At the same time, it must be remembered that the increase of the absolute quantity has become more conspicuous, though its distribution is comparatively limited.3. Two-piece hooks are classified into six types (A-F). Unfortunately, we are obliged to make a study of mainly Types A, E and F because of the lack of the specimens of the other types. Type A found during the Stage 1 comprises chiefly the medium-sized two-piece hooks which are similar to the non-barbed type of one-piece hook in their size, and Type E and F consist of large- or remarkably large-sized specimens. Hence it can be said that Types E and F are a sort of form that promoted progressively the tendency to make larger fish-hooks like the barbed type of one-piece hook.4. A study of fish bones found in the shell mounds provides us with information that fish-hooks were mainly used for the capture of such fishes as Pagrosomus unicolor (QUOY & GAIMARD), Euthynnus pelamys (LINNÉ) and Thynnus thynnus (LINNE), though the last is rare. It seems safe to suppose that the fish-hooks of medium size might correspond to the use of the capture of Pagrosomus unicolor, and those of large size to Thynnus thynnus: in particular the latter seems to have been bartered as a major materials.5. It may be explained that the phenomenon that fishery by angling, which had been developed since the later phase of the Stage 3, was more positively selecting fishing places in the Stage 5 indicates the appearance or development of a group of houses specializing in the fishery.6. 96.6 per cent of fish-hooks are made of deer antler, and the Types E and F of two-piece hook are of ideal perfection of technical development which has succeded in meeting the demand of mass production of the large-sized fish-hooks within the restriction of the material-antler. However, this restriction of the material seems to have been dissolved by the diffusion of Yayoi culture in the succeeding period.7. Such a technical development was made along the Pacific coast of northeast Honshu, where the sign of this advance had been recognized in the later phase of the Stage 3, and especially in this coast the Bay of Sendai must have played a leading part in making a remarkable progress.8. From the extensive point of view, the sites containing the fish-hooks are concentrated along the Pacific coast of central and northeast Honshu, and are very rare in the prefecture bordering the Japan Sea and in southern Honshu and Hokkaido. It is noteworthy that the areas of heaviest concentration of the sites from which the fish-hooks have been recovered corresponds to the areas where the Jomon culture most flourished.
著者
小浜 基次 加藤 昌太良 欠田 早苗
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.3-4, pp.128-140, 1962-03-30 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
19

In the summers of 1957-58, somatometrical and somatoscopical investigations were made on the present Ainu of Shari in Kitami province, Hokkaido.In comparison with the Ainu of other provinces, Shari-Ainu was higher in stature and slightly shorter in leg length, biacromial and biiliac diameters. The mean values of the head length and the cephalic index of the Shari-Ainu were 189.67mm and 79.83 respectively, showing that their head is shorter and far greater in cephalic index than those of the other Ainu. The most distinctive traits of the Shari-Ainu were larger facial and nasal height.So far as metrical values are concerned, Shari-Ainu tended to differ from the pure Ainu and resemble to the Japanese in the north-east district of Japan, suggesting that the Shari-Ainu is closely mixed with the Japanese. The cephalic characteristics of the Shari-Ainu seemed to suggest that they were not related to the Moyoro skulls which were excavated from the shell-mound in Abashiri.
著者
JACQUELINE T. ENG QUANCHAO ZHANG HONG ZHU
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.118, no.2, pp.107-116, 2010 (Released:2010-08-07)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
4 8

The practice of castrating men is an ancient one. Eunuchs have served as guards to harems and as palace chamberlains for many early courts, but details about their lives are often hazy or shrouded in secrecy. Although the changes wrought to their physical appearance from castration are well-documented, little is known about the magnitude of the skeletal changes resulting from the loss of sex hormones associated with the procedure. Such a loss of hormones, especially before puberty, affects skeletal growth and development and may result in early osteoporosis as well as impacting quality of life. The burials of two eunuchs from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD) of imperial China provide an opportunity to examine the consequences of castration upon the human skeleton. These eunuchs may have been castrated at different periods in their lives. One eunuch appears to have been castrated before the development of secondary sexual characteristics; the delayed epiphyseal closure accompanying androgen deficiency may account for his long limbs. Skeletal evidence also sheds light on the lives of these eunuchs, including their oral health, history of childhood stress, and activity patterns.