- SOCIETY FOR FREE RADICAL RESEARCH JAPAN
- Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition (ISSN:09120009)
- vol.67, no.1, pp.53-60, 2020 (Released:2020-07-01)
Energy metabolism and circadian rhythms are closely related together, i.e., the timing of nutrient intake affects metabolism under the regulation of circadian rhythms. Previously, we have reported that cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) promotes energy metabolism, resulting in preventing obesity and hyperglycemia. However, it is not unclear whether CLPr regulates clock gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether the administration timing of CLPr affected clock gene expression and found that CLPr regulated the circadian clock gene expression through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway. CLPr administration at Zeitgeber time 3 increased the expression level of Per family and Dbp in the liver. At the same administration timing, CLPr increased GLP-1 and insulin concentration in the plasma and phosphorylation of AMPK in the liver. It was noteworthy that an antagonist for GLP-1 receptor Exendin (9-39) canceled CLPr-increased expression of Per family and Dbp and phosphorylation of AMPK in the liver, in addition to insulin secretion. These results strongly suggest that CLPr-induced GLP-1 regulates the changes in clock gene expression in the liver through increased insulin. Thus, CLPr is a possible functional food material for prevention and/or amelioration of metabolic disorders through preventing circadian disruption through GLP-1 and AMPK pathways.