著者
Yoshikazu Iha Futoshi Higa Satoko Sunagawa Masamitsu Naka Haley L. Cash Kazuya Miyagi Shusaku Haranaga Masao Tateyama Tsukasa Uno Jiro Fujita
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.295-300, 2012 (Released:2012-09-21)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
8 9

Climatic conditions may have affected the incidence of influenza during the pandemic of 2009 as well as at other times. This study evaluated the effects of climatic conditions on influenza incidence in Okinawa, a subtropical region in Japan, during the 2009 pandemic using surveillance data from rapid antigen test (RAT) results. Weekly RAT results performed in four acute care hospitals in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands from January 2007 to July 2011 were anonymously collected for surveillance of regional influenza prevalence. Intense epidemic peaks were noted in August 2009 and December 2009–January 2010 during the influenza pandemic of 2009. RAT positivity rates were lower during the pandemic period than during the pre- and post-pandemic periods. Lower ambient temperature was associated with higher influenza incidence during pre- and post-pandemic periods but not during the pandemic of 2009. Lower relative humidity was associated with higher influenza incidence during the pandemic as well as during the other two periods. The association of climatic conditions and influenza incidence was less prominent during the pandemic of 2009 than during pre- and post-pandemic periods.
著者
Yumiko Akamine Kayoko China Tsukasa Uno
出版者
日本臨床精神神経薬理学会
雑誌
Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology and Therapeutics (ISSN:18848826)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.8-14, 2012 (Released:2012-05-11)
参考文献数
53

At the Blood–Brain barrier (BBB), the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters includes the ABCB1 subfamily corresponding to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the ABCC subfamilies of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and the ABCG2 subfamily corresponding to breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). These efflux transporters are located mainly in the endothelial cells forming the BBB and prevent the entry of xenobiotics into the brain. Since psychotropics act on target sites of the central nervous system (CNS) in the brain, it is very important to know these transporters' roles at the BBB and to determine the brain drug concentrations at the targeted sites of the CNS. However, there is little information on human brain concentrations of psychotropics. Recent studies have demonstrated that brain concentrations of many psychotropics are significantly higher in P-gp-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. This result implies that P-gp may be a key player in the regulation of brain psychotropic pharmacokinetics and possibly causes the P-gp-mediated drug interaction at the BBB. In this review, we discuss the current findings concerning the role of drug transporters on the concentrations of psychotropics in the brain and summarize the available in vivo studies related to psychotropics.