著者
Kenichi Komabayashi Junji Seto Shizuka Tanaka Yu Suzuki Tatsuya Ikeda Noriko Onuki Keiko Yamada Tadayuki Ahiko Hitoshi Ishikawa Katsumi Mizuta
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.413-418, 2018-11-30 (Released:2018-11-22)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1 2

The incidence of modified measles (M-Me), characterized by milder symptoms than those of typical measles (T-Me), has been increasing in Japan. However, the outbreak dominated by M-Me cases has not been thoroughly investigated worldwide. The largest importation-related outbreak of measles with genotype D8 occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, from March to April 2017. This phenomenon was observed after Japan had achieved measles elimination in 2015. We confirmed 60 cases by detecting the genome of the measles virus (MeV). Among the cases, 38 were M-Me and 22 were T-Me. Thirty-nine (65.0%) patients were 20–39 years of age. Three out of 7 primary cases produced 50 transmissions, of which each patient caused 9–25 transmissions. These patients were 22–31 years old and were not vaccinated. Moreover, they developed T-Me and kept contact with the public during their symptomatic periods. Considering that M-Me is generally caused by vaccine failure, some individuals in Japan may have insufficient immunity for MeV. Accordingly, additional doses of measles vaccine may be necessary in preventing measles importation and endemicity among individuals aged 20–39 years. Furthermore, to accurately and promptly diagnose individuals with measles, particularly those who can be considered as primary cases, efforts must be exerted to detect all measles cases using epidemiological and genetic approaches in countries where measles elimination had been achieved.
著者
Satoshi Iwata Shinya Murata Shi Rong Han Akira Wakana Miyuki Sawata Yoshiyuki Tanaka
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.4, pp.368-373, 2017 (Released:2017-07-24)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
3 5

A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) virus-like particle vaccine (9vHPV) has been proven highly efficacious in preventing anogenital diseases related to HPV, in a pivotal phase III study for women aged 16-26 years. Here, we report the results of an open-label phase III study conducted to bridge the gap between the findings in women aged 16-26 years and Japanese girls aged 9-15 years. All subjects (n = 100) received a 3-dose regimen of 9vHPV vaccine on day 1 and at months 2 and 6. Anti-HPV serological assays were performed on day 1 and at months 7, 12, 24, and 30. At month 7 (4 weeks after the third dose), 100% of the subjects exhibited seroconversion for each type of HPV. Increases in geometric mean of the titers for anti-HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the subjects were similar to those in Japanese women aged 16-26 years in a previous phase III study. Persistence of the anti-HPV response was observed for 2 years after administration of the third dose. In addition, administration of the 9vHPV vaccine was generally well-tolerated in Japanese girls.
著者
Hiroki Saito Hiroyuki Noda Shunji Takakura Kazuaki Jindai Rieko Takahashi McLellan Kazunari Asanuma
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.208, (Released:2018-08-31)
参考文献数
5

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top public health agendas in Japan. Since Japan published the national action plan (NAP) on AMR in 2016, the NAP implementation has been a major focus in Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). Japan MHLW recently published the 1st edition of “Manual of Antimicrobial Stewardship” (including English version), a narrative review with particular focus on outpatient setting of primary care and two common infectious disease conditions. This is one of very few occasions where MHLW proactively set a clinical guidance for health care delivery at facility level. Implementation of the manual will be further supported by the change in our social health insurance coverage.
著者
Hiroshi Yoshikura
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.228, (Released:2018-09-28)
参考文献数
4

The frequency of the ages of the HIV/AIDS deaths and that of the patients detected before or after the development of AIDS followed normal distribution. The median of HIV/AIDS deaths was 40-44 years in 1995-1998 and 50-54 years in 2014-2016, while the median of detection of the infection as “HIV” or as “AIDS” was constantly 25-29 years; it implied that the survival time of the HIV/AIDS patients became longer by 10 years in the past twenty odd years. The lengthening of the survival time could have been attributable to introduction of HIV/AIDS therapy, such as HAART. Importantly, however, during the same period, the life span of Japanese population was lengthened by near 10 years. Under the assumption that HIV/AIDS patients died 20 years after detection of the infection, the total number of the deaths was 1,446 in 1990-2016, which was close to the total number in Vital Statistics during the same period 1,532.
著者
Yuichi Fukui Hisashi Inokuma
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.470, (Released:2019-01-31)
参考文献数
18

The prevalence of Anaplasma infection in 332 dogs from Ibaraki, Japan, was evaluated by serological and molecular surveys. Immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) against Anaplasma phagocytophilum indicated that 7 (2.1%) of 328 dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Screening PCR demonstrated that 8 (2.4%) of 331 dogs were positive for Anaplasmataceae. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA sequence of PCR amplicons revealed that 6 sequences were most similar to the 16S rRNA sequence of Wolbachia sp. and the remaining 2 to Anaplasma bovis. Further analysis by A. phagocytophilum-specific nested PCR demonstrated that 1 dog infected with A. bovis was also positive for A. phagocytophilum. This is the first study to report the dual infection of a dog in Japan with A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum.
著者
Tetsuo Nakayama Shigeru Suga Kenji Okada Nobuhiko Okabe
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.49-52, 2019-01-31 (Released:2019-01-23)
参考文献数
23

A follow-up serological study was conducted involving 47 subjects who received 4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, combined with the acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) together with Salk-type inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV), until 6 years of age. All antibody levels declined more rapidly than expected within 3 years after the completion of primary vaccination with the 4th booster dose, and titers persisted until 6 years of age. The positive rate of the IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT) was 31.9% (15/47) at 4 years of age, 41.0% (16/39) at 5 years of age, and 40.5% (15/37) at 6 years of age. A significant increase in anti-PT antibodies was observed in 6 subjects, suggesting subclinical infection. Positive rates of antibodies against other targets did not decrease; however, titers of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus type III decreased in a few subjects. These data suggest the need for an additional preschool booster immunization using DTaP-wIPV.
著者
Akio Yamada Kohei Makita Hazumu Kadowaki Naoto Ito Makoto Sugiyama Nigel C.L. Kwan Katsuaki Sugiura
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.431, (Released:2018-12-25)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
1

Although rabies still kills many people, global eradication of human rabies is considered to be feasible. Because the progress toward eradication may be different among regions with different socio-economic status, states that successfully eradicate this disease must be vigilant for re-emergence of rabies. In this article, we describe arguments over current rabies prevention measures and risk assessment results for rabies introduction and spread in rabies-free Japan. We also summarize the measures taken by representative countries and regions free from rabies. Our risk assessment results revealed that the risk of rabies reintroduction under current circumstances is very low, and that subsequent spread of the disease would be minimal because of quite low value of basic reproduction number. Similar assessments conducted in other rabies-free areas also showed quite limited risks of introduction. The majority of rabies-free countries maintain their rabies-free status through strict import quarantine of carnivorous animals, efficient surveillance of animal rabies including wildlife, quick emergency responses, and raising public awareness of the disease. To keep current rabies-free status in Japan, it is strongly recommended to maintain current quarantine system as well as to reinforce compliance of stakeholders involved in international dog movement. Sustainable surveillance system targeting wildlife is also indispensable.
著者
Tetsuo Nakayama Shigeru Suga Kenji Okada Nobuhiko Okabe
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.314, (Released:2018-10-31)
参考文献数
23

A follow-up serological study was conducted involving 47 subjects who received four doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) together with Salk-type inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV) until 6 years of age. All antibody levels declined more rapidly than expected within 3 years after the completion of the primary vaccination with 4th booster dose and titers persisted until 6 years of age. The positive rate of the IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT) was 31.9% (15/47) at 4 years of age, 41.0% (16/39) at 5 years of age, and 40.5% (15/37) at 6 years of age. A significant increase in the PT antibody was observed in 6 subjects, suggesting subclinical infection. Positive rates of antibodies against other targets did not decrease but titers of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus type III decreased in only a few subjects. These data suggest the need for an additional preschool booster immunization using DTaP-wIPV.
著者
Yuichi Fukui Seigo Ohkawa Hisashi Inokuma
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.4, pp.302-305, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-07-24)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected from a dog with canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA using 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL sequences revealed that the strain was nearly identical to A. phagocytophilum detected from Apodemus agrarius (black-striped field mouse) in China and Korea. To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of A. phagocytophilum from a clinical case of CGA in Japan.
著者
Hiroshi Yoshikura
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2018.183, (Released:2018-09-28)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1

In Japan, HIV infection is classified as “HIV” or “AIDS” depending upon whether the infection was detected before or after development of AIDS. For male homosexuals, in the plot of the number of “AIDS” versus the number of “HIV”, the plots fell on a straight line with a slope close to 1. When the number of “HIV” stopped increasing, that of “AIDS” stopped increasing. The number of “HIV” in one region or in one age group was correlated with that of other regions or that of other age groups, respectively. No such correlation was detected for male heterosexuals. Male homosexuals and females were detected more as “HIV” than male heterosexuals. Detection as “AIDS” increased with age in all the infection categories. Our analysis supported by others suggested that the higher rate of detection as “HIV” among male homosexuals and females than among male heterosexuals was attributable to higher risk of the receptive sexual intercourse, and the higher incidence of “AIDS” among elderlies to immunological senescence.
著者
Xiaochen Liu Wenxiao Jia Hong Wang Yunling Wang Jingxun Ma Hao Wang Xuan Zhou Guohua Li
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.89-97, 2015 (Released:2015-03-23)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
4 4

This study aimed to establish a spinal tuberculosis model by implanting Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv into the lumbar vertebral body of New Zealand white rabbits. A hole was first drilled into the top of the 6th lumbar vertebra of each rabbit, which was then filled with a gelatin sponge to adsorb 0.2 ml of M. tuberculosis suspension (107 CFU /ml) for the infection group or normal saline for the control group. The holes were then closed with sutures. CT findings demonstrated that 5 and 10 rabbits developed spinal tuberculosis at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, after this procedure. MRI examinations revealed that 7 and 15 rabbits had positive results at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, after this procedure. HE staining of the vertebral body and paravertebral soft tissue biopsies of infected rabbits indicated inflammatory cell infiltration or necrosis in 15 rabbits. M. tuberculosis was cultured in 67% of the abscesses. The modeling success rate was 68.1%. By implanting an appropriate dosage of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv into a local lumbar vertebral body of New Zealand white rabbits, we successfully established a spinal tuberculosis model, the pathological changes of which are similar to those of human spinal tuberculosis.
著者
Shinji Fukushima Hitoshi Kikuchi Mitsunobu Miyazu Atsuo Hamada Kazunobu Ouchi Hiroki Takagi Hanako Mihara Toru Sasaki Hayato Oka Valerie Bosch-Castells Philipp Oster
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2017.277, (Released:2018-06-29)
参考文献数
31

Meningococcal disease can cause significant disability and mortality. The quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (Men-ACWY-D) protects against invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. This phase III, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a single vaccine dose in healthy Japanese adults. The study enrolled 200 participants 2-55 years of age. Immunogenicity was assessed by quantifying seroprotection rates (the proportion of participants with antibody titers ≥1:128 against capsular polysaccharide from all 4 serogroups, measured 28 days after vaccination). Safety endpoints included occurrence, nature, time to onset, duration, intensity, relationship to vaccination, and outcome of solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs). Participants included 194 adults, 2 adolescents, and 4 children. Among adults, seroprotection rates for serogroups A, C, W, and Y were 91.2%, 80.2%, 89.1%, and 93.8%, respectively. Seroconversion rates (proportion of participants with pre-vaccination titers of <1:4 and a ≥4-fold rise from baseline) were 87.3%, 83.0%, 94.4%, and 96.4%, respectively. No immediate AEs or reactions, SAEs, or deaths were reported in any age group. Men-ACWY-D is well tolerated and immunogenic, eliciting antibodies against capsular polysaccharides from all 4 serogroups in Japanese adults.
著者
Yuichi Fukui Seigo Ohkawa Hisashi Inokuma
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2017.558, (Released:2018-04-27)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected from a dog with canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA using 16s rRNA, gltA, and groEL sequences revealed that the strain was nearly identical to A. phagocytophilum detected from Apodemus agrarius (black-striped field mouse) in China and Korea. This report is the first phylogenetic study on A. phagocytophilum from a CGA case in Japan.