著者
Yoshikazu Iha Futoshi Higa Satoko Sunagawa Masamitsu Naka Haley L. Cash Kazuya Miyagi Shusaku Haranaga Masao Tateyama Tsukasa Uno Jiro Fujita
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.295-300, 2012 (Released:2012-09-21)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
8 9

Climatic conditions may have affected the incidence of influenza during the pandemic of 2009 as well as at other times. This study evaluated the effects of climatic conditions on influenza incidence in Okinawa, a subtropical region in Japan, during the 2009 pandemic using surveillance data from rapid antigen test (RAT) results. Weekly RAT results performed in four acute care hospitals in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands from January 2007 to July 2011 were anonymously collected for surveillance of regional influenza prevalence. Intense epidemic peaks were noted in August 2009 and December 2009–January 2010 during the influenza pandemic of 2009. RAT positivity rates were lower during the pandemic period than during the pre- and post-pandemic periods. Lower ambient temperature was associated with higher influenza incidence during pre- and post-pandemic periods but not during the pandemic of 2009. Lower relative humidity was associated with higher influenza incidence during the pandemic as well as during the other two periods. The association of climatic conditions and influenza incidence was less prominent during the pandemic of 2009 than during pre- and post-pandemic periods.
著者
清水 孜 広鰭 律子 野村 泰子 栗飯原 景昭 宮木 高明
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology (ISSN:00215112)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.5, pp.271-279, 1971 (Released:2010-03-19)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 2

In order to prove sodium toxicity of MSG, baby chicks known to be the most susceptible one to sodium chloride were chosen as the experimental animal. Almost isotonic solution of MSG, NaCl or monopotassium glutamate was given ad libitum as the sole source of drinking water. Two-day old chickens given MSG died of gout within a few days and showed higher mortality and lesions severer than those given physiological saline, while none died nor was weakened among those receiving monopotassium glutamate. Very rapid development of kidney lesions and a large amount of urate deposits were the two main features resulting from MSG ingestion, and primary histological changes were tubular degeneration and tophi obstruction in collecting ducts. Even at half concentration, MSG ingestion caused lobar atrophy in the kidney and some died of gout. Besides sodium toxicity, glutamate counterpart is suspected of contributing to uric acid synthesis.
著者
Kenichi Komabayashi Junji Seto Shizuka Tanaka Yu Suzuki Tatsuya Ikeda Noriko Onuki Keiko Yamada Tadayuki Ahiko Hitoshi Ishikawa Katsumi Mizuta
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.413-418, 2018-11-30 (Released:2018-11-22)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1 19

The incidence of modified measles (M-Me), characterized by milder symptoms than those of typical measles (T-Me), has been increasing in Japan. However, the outbreak dominated by M-Me cases has not been thoroughly investigated worldwide. The largest importation-related outbreak of measles with genotype D8 occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, from March to April 2017. This phenomenon was observed after Japan had achieved measles elimination in 2015. We confirmed 60 cases by detecting the genome of the measles virus (MeV). Among the cases, 38 were M-Me and 22 were T-Me. Thirty-nine (65.0%) patients were 20–39 years of age. Three out of 7 primary cases produced 50 transmissions, of which each patient caused 9–25 transmissions. These patients were 22–31 years old and were not vaccinated. Moreover, they developed T-Me and kept contact with the public during their symptomatic periods. Considering that M-Me is generally caused by vaccine failure, some individuals in Japan may have insufficient immunity for MeV. Accordingly, additional doses of measles vaccine may be necessary in preventing measles importation and endemicity among individuals aged 20–39 years. Furthermore, to accurately and promptly diagnose individuals with measles, particularly those who can be considered as primary cases, efforts must be exerted to detect all measles cases using epidemiological and genetic approaches in countries where measles elimination had been achieved.
著者
Satoshi Iwata Shinya Murata Shi Rong Han Akira Wakana Miyuki Sawata Yoshiyuki Tanaka
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.4, pp.368-373, 2017 (Released:2017-07-24)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
3 6

A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) virus-like particle vaccine (9vHPV) has been proven highly efficacious in preventing anogenital diseases related to HPV, in a pivotal phase III study for women aged 16-26 years. Here, we report the results of an open-label phase III study conducted to bridge the gap between the findings in women aged 16-26 years and Japanese girls aged 9-15 years. All subjects (n = 100) received a 3-dose regimen of 9vHPV vaccine on day 1 and at months 2 and 6. Anti-HPV serological assays were performed on day 1 and at months 7, 12, 24, and 30. At month 7 (4 weeks after the third dose), 100% of the subjects exhibited seroconversion for each type of HPV. Increases in geometric mean of the titers for anti-HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the subjects were similar to those in Japanese women aged 16-26 years in a previous phase III study. Persistence of the anti-HPV response was observed for 2 years after administration of the third dose. In addition, administration of the 9vHPV vaccine was generally well-tolerated in Japanese girls.
著者
Shinya Murata Yuzuru Takeuchi Kou Yamanaka Jun Hayakawa Masashige Yoshida Ruriko Yokokawa Akira Wakana Miyuki Sawata Yoshiyuki Tanaka
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.5, pp.299-305, 2019 (Released:2019-09-19)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease is common among men with HPV infection. A quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has demonstrated 85.9% efficacy against HPV6/11/16/18-related, persistent (≥ 6 month) infection in a study of Japanese men aged 16–26 years old. Here, we report the results of an open-label study of the immunogenicity and tolerability of the qHPV vaccine (NCT02576054), conducted to bridge findings from Japanese men to Japanese boys aged 9–15 years old. A total of 100 boys completed a three-vaccination regimen (Day 1, and Months 2 and 6), and 99 boys were included in the primary analysis population. The rate of seroconversion at one month after vaccine Dose 3 (Month 7) was high for each type of HPV (anti-HPV6/11/16/18 seroconversion rates [95% CI]: 94.9% [85.5%, 98.3%], 99.0% [94.4%, 100.0%], 99.0% [94.5%, 100.0%], and 99.0% [94.4%, 100.0%], respectively). Moreover, anti-HPV6/11/16/18 geometric mean titers were 482.9 mMU/mL, 1052.8 mMU/mL, 3878.3 mMU/mL, and 1114.5 mMU/mL, respectively. Immune responses to the qHPV vaccine were non-inferior among Japanese boys included in the current study and compared with young Japanese men from a separate study. Injection-site reactions were the most common adverse events, and administration of the vaccine was well tolerated in Japanese boys.
著者
Fujio Kakuya Hitoshi Okubo Hiroaki Fujiyasu Iori Wakabayashi Masayo Syouji Takahiro Kinebuchi
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2020.181, (Released:2020-05-29)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, and has a high mortality rate. The disease emerged from Wuhan, China, in late 2019, and spread to Japan, including Hokkaido, in January 2020. In February 2020, three children were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Furano, Hokkaido, Japan. During this period, influenza and human metapneumovirus infections were prevalent among children in the Furano region. Two of the three cases experienced co-infection with other respiratory viruses, including influenza virus A or human metapneumovirus. To the authors’ knowledge, the cases described in the present report were the first pediatric patients with COVID-19 in Japan. In children with COVID-19, the possibility of co-infection with other respiratory pathogens should be considered.
著者
Guoqing Cao Shaotao Tang Dehua Yang Wenjia Shi Xiaorong Wang Hua Wang Chen Li Jia Wei Ling Ma
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2020.165, (Released:2020-05-29)
参考文献数
22

In December 2019, a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness, novel coronavirusinfected pneumonia, occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The false-negative nasopharyngeal swabs of SARS-CoV-2 caused the delayed diagnosis of COVID-19 which hindered the prevention and control of the pandemic. The transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in negative nasopharyngeal swabs cases were little addressed previously. This study evaluated two clusters of COVID-19 in six patients. Four of six (66.7%) showed negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swabs. All epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information was collected. The first cluster was a nosocomial infection of four health care providers at early January. One of them made sequential familial cluster of infection. All patients received either selfquarantined at home or were admitted to hospital for isolated treatment. All recovered and had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM positive (100%) for serological detection of SARS-CoV-2 at recovery stage. Our study provides a cautionary warning that negative results of nasopharyngeal swabs of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection can increase the risk of nosocomial infection among health care providers. Serologic detection for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM is an important test in the assistant diagnosis of COVID-19.
著者
Kazuya Shirato Naganori Nao Harutaka Katano Ikuyo Takayama Shinji Saito Fumihiro Kato Hiroshi Katoh Masafumi Sakata Yuichiro Nakatsu Yoshio Mori Tsutomu Kageyama Shutoku Matsuyama Makoto Takeda
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2020.061, (Released:2020-02-18)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
48

At the end of 2019, pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus 2019 (nCoV) emerged in Wuhan city, China. Many airline travelers moved between Wuhan and Japan at that time, suggesting that Japan is at high risk of invasion by the virus. Diagnostic systems for 2019-nCoV were developed with urgency. Two nested RT–PCR assays and two real-time RT–PCR assays were adapted to local Japanese conditions. As of 8 February 2020, the assays developed have successfully detected 25 positive cases of infection in Japan.
著者
Huihuang Huang Bing Song Zhe Xu Yanmei Jiao Lei Huang Peng Zhao Jiagan Huang Zihan Zhou Zhuanghong Zhao Jing Tian Yuting Zhou Fu-sheng Wang Tianjun Jiang
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2020.298, (Released:2020-08-01)
参考文献数
35

To analyze clinical characteristics and potential predictors of disease severity in patients with COVID-19.Clinical data from 64 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 64 patients, 37 were male and 27 were female. Their mean age was 47.8 years, 43 (67.2%) cases were non-severe, 21 (32.8%) were severe, and 2 patients (3.1%) died. Age and serum ferritin were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity. Repeated monitoring of ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactic acid dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during COVID-19 treatment may assist the prediction of disease severity and evaluation of treatment effects. There were no significant differences in the duration of severe illness or the number of days on high-level respiratory support between a low-dose methylprednisolone group and a high-dose methylprednisolone group. The mean number of days in hospital in the high dose group was higher than that in the low-dose group. Repeated monitoring of ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactic acid dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during COVID-19 treatment may assist the prediction of disease severity and evaluation of treatment effects.
著者
Masahiro Ishikane Yusuke Miyazato Satoshi Kustuna Tetsuya Suzuki Satoshi Ide Keiji Nakamura Shinichiro Morioka Harutaka Katano Tadaki Suzuki Norio Ohmagari
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2020.240, (Released:2020-05-29)
参考文献数
14

We report a case of patient in Japan with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with false-negative of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 of pharyngeal swab, from a Chinese traveller returning from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. If a patient is clinically or epidemiologically suspected of COVID-19, appropriate infection and prevention control measures such as standard, contact, and droplet precaution are needed until the patient is proven to be true-negative.
著者
Atsushi Hinenoya Sharda Prasad Awasthi Noritomo Yasuda Ayaka Shima Hirofumi Morino Tomoko Koizumi Toshiaki Fukuda Takanori Miura Takashi Shibata Shinji Yamasaki
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.276-279, 2015 (Released:2015-07-22)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
8 8

In this study, we evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) on various multidrug-resistant strains in the presence of bovine serum albumin and sheep erythrocytes to mimic the blood contamination that frequently occurs in the clinical setting. The 3 most important species that cause nosocomial infections, i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA), were evaluated, with three representative strains of each. At a 10-ppm concentration, ClO2 drastically reduced the number of bacteria of all MDRP and MDRA strains, and 2 out of 3 MRSA strains. However, 10 ppm of NaClO did not significantly kill any of the 9 strains tested in 60 seconds (s). In addition, 100 ppm of ClO2 completely killed all MRSA strains, whereas 100 ppm of NaClO failed to significantly lower the number of 2 MRSA strains and 1 MDRA strain. A time-course experiment demonstrated that, within 15 s, 100 ppm of ClO2, but not 100 ppm of NaClO, completely killed all tested strains. Taken together, these data suggest that ClO2 is more effective than NaClO against MRSA, MDRP, and MDRA, and 100 ppm is an effective concentration against these multidrug-resistant strains, which cause fatal nosocomial infections.
著者
Masahiro Ishikane Yoshiki Kusama Chika Tanaka Kayoko Hayakawa Takeshi Kuwahara Norio Ohmagari
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2019.476, (Released:2020-01-31)
参考文献数
11

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging problem in both acute care hospitals and nursing homes. From January to December 2016, we conducted a pilot, descriptive epidemiological study to examine antimicrobial use (AMU) among six nursing homes in Tokyo, Japan. AMU was extracted from prescription data of a pharmacy that received all prescriptions from the nursing homes. To standardize the comparison of drug usage, AMU was measured using defined daily dose (DDD) and described as DDDs/1,000 resident-days. The overall AMU was 15.3/1,000 resident-days including oral-antimicrobials (15.2/1,000 resident-days [99.3%]). The most frequently prescribed oral-antimicrobials was macrolides (5.8/1,000 resident-days [38.2%]) and quinolones (4.2/1,000 resident-days [27.6%]). Oral-macrolides and quinolones were thought to be convenience in prescription among nursing homes with resource limiting due to smaller defined the number of daily doses compared to penicillins and cephalosporins. Further multi-center studies that include residents-specific data (demographics and diagnosis), and focusing on purpose of antimicrobials (treatment or prevention) are needed to evaluate the appropriateness of antimicrobials.
著者
Thu Thuy Bui Meng Ling Moi Kouichi Morita Futoshi Hasebe
出版者
National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee
雑誌
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases (ISSN:13446304)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JJID.2019.073, (Released:2019-10-31)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Zika is a mosquito-borne disease that is causing significant public health threats in recent years. Zika virus (ZIKV), the causative agent of this disease, is classified into two distinct genetic lineages: Asian and African lineages. While molecular nucleic acid methods have been proved useful for the diagnosis of ZIKV infection, development of assays based on one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) offers advantages including shorter incubation times, ease of handling and rapid detection. In this study, a universal LAMP primer set was developed to target conserved sequence of known ZIKV lineages. Additionally, Af7462 and As1788 primer sets were designed based on LAMP-based SNPs typing for the specific detection of African and Asian lineages. The RT-LAMP assays detected specifically African and Asian lineages, with the limit of detection range from 0.17 FFU/ml – 2.3x102 FFU/ml. As ZIKV viremia ranges between 102 to 106 PFU/ml or 103–106 copies/mL, the data indicate that the viremia range of clinical samples is within our detection range. Because of the high specificity and sensitivity and ease of use, the results suggest the utility of the assay in early clinical diagnosis applications.