- vol.45, 1989-10-01
In the Japanese labor market for fresh graduates, (A) it is widely known that a majority of highly selective universities' graduates gain employment with big enterprises. Among graduates of "standard scores" 70-75, 71.4% of graduates who find jobs in the private sector work in firms of over 5000 employees. However, they share only 22.9% of the overall new employment of the big enterprises. (B) The real number of the big enterprises' employment shows that graduates of middle to upper-middle level universities comprise the majority. Thus, (A) is the result gived by an analysis of individual universities, (B) is the real state of the enterprises' employment. Even though each enterprise employs fresh graduates in the way of (B), the overall result turns out to be the way of (A). The mechanism of this perverse effect is worthy of further explanation. We have found the following two explanations. The number of graduates of high-ranking universities is small while the number of graduates t of middle-ranking universities is large. Thus, even the enterprises use a kind of quota system to pursue a balanced employment, and as a result, universities of higher standard scores are more likely to be in a favorable situation in the labor market. In addition to this, many big enterprises do not especially employ a large number of graduates of highly selective universities, but the number of big enterprises employing them is large. On the other hand, the number of universities with a middle standard score is large. Even if the enterprises do not employ the graduates of X University, they can be substituted by the graduates of Y University. Therefore, it is mostly a composition effect of all big enterprises that increases the employment rate of the universities of high standard scores in the big enterprises.