著者
前川 直哉
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.5-23, 2007-11-30

This paper elucidates historical changes in the images of homoeroticism between male students in the Meiji Era and examines the factors behind this change. During the Meiji Era, intellectuals subscribed to a morality that prohibited homosexuality. However, some male students, known as kouha (solid students), shared common values that placed a positive value on homoeroticism between male students. They loathed falling victim to women's charms, and aspired to develop ideal relations between themselves and other elite male students. In the 1900s, the number of girls attending school increased markedly, and the presence of female students increased. These women came to be seen as suitable love or marriage partners for male students. In modern Japan, the emergence of female students helped to form the ideology of romantic love and a new positive image composed of love, marriage, and family. These changes brought about by the emergence of female students had an impact on the images of homoeroticism between male students. After the 1900s, a form of homoeroticism called "love between men" became popular among the nampa (soft students), and the kouha students lost their monopoly on homoeroticism. However, "love between men" was just a substitute for love between men and women. On the other hand, the kouha students strengthened their belief that they should avoid falling in love, as they thought it was too feminine. Therefore, they called close relations between men "friendships between men, " avoiding the use of the word "love." In this way, homoeroticism between male students was separated into "love between men, " as an imitation, and "friendship between men." Homoeroticism between male students was transformed into a form adapted to heterosexism.
著者
前川 直哉
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.5-23, 2007-11-30 (Released:2015-07-14)

This paper elucidates historical changes in the images of homoeroticism between male students in the Meiji Era and examines the factors behind this change.During the Meiji Era, intellectuals subscribed to a morality that prohibited homosexuality. However, some male students, known as kouha (solid students), shared common values that placed a positive value on homoeroticism between male students. They loathed falling victim to womenʼs charms, and aspired to develop ideal relations between themselves and other elite male students.In the 1900s, the number of girls attending school increased markedly, and the presence of female students increased. These women came to be seen as suitable love or marriage partners for male students. In modern Japan,the emergence of female students helped to form the ideology of romantic love and a new positive image composed of love, marriage, and family.These changes brought about by the emergence of female students had an impact on the images of homoeroticism between male students. After the 1900s, a form of homoeroticism called “love between men” became popular among the nampa (soft students), and the kouha students lost their monopoly on homoeroticism. However, “love between men” was just a substitute for love between men and women. On the other hand,the kouha students strengthened their belief that they should avoid falling in love, as they thought it was too feminine. Therefore, they called close relations between men “friendships between men,” avoiding the use of the word “love.” In this way, homoeroticism between male students was separated into “love between men,” as an imitation, and “friendship between men.” Homoeroticism between male students was transformed into a form adapted to heterosexism.
著者
舞田 敏彦
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, pp.165-184, 2008-06-15

Children's academic achievements differ by social class. Today, many researchers investigate schools that effectively reduce these differences. They have pointed out that in schools that are successful in this endeavor, there are many practices aimed at raising the academic achievements of children from lower classes. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the effects of these practices from the viewpoint of added value. This study aims to compare the actual achievement levels of children of each region with those estimated based on their socio-economic conditions and to clarify the educational conditions in the regions in which the actual levels are higher than expectations. For my method, I analyzed the data of academic achievement tests. I clarified children's achievement levels in 49 cities and wards in the Tokyo metropolitan area and in school districts in Adachi Ward (73 primary school districts, 38 junior high school districts). I examined the relations between the achievement levels and the socio-economic conditions of each region. Using this data, I estimated achievement levels using regression analysis. Regions were then divided into types by comparing the expected levels and actual ones. I named regions whose achievement levels were higher than expected "Effort types." The opposites are named, "Problem types." I then investigated the differences of educational conditions between these two types. It was found that in Effort types, the numbers of children per school, class and teacher are relatively small. School size, class size and teacher's burden are small in these regions. In Problem types, they are relatively large. These differences are significant in the data from school districts in Adachi Ward. Based on the findings, I concluded as follows: 1. The influence of social background on children's academic achievement can be reduced by the improvement of educational conditions such as reducing class size, which is the task of educational administrations. 2. The improvement of educational conditions is less effective for raising the absolute level of academic achievement. It is effective for the reduction of the social determinants of children's academic abilities. 3. Evaluations of schools from the viewpoint of added value are needed.
著者
間山 広朗
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, pp.145-163, 2002-05-15
被引用数
0 or 11

"Ijime suicide" (or suicide caused by bullying) has been one of the most serious problems in Japanese primary and secondary schools since the late 1970s. The problem has been widely studied in Japan. Generally speaking, the prevailing view is that though bullying has always existed, the situation of children committing suicide because of bullying is getting worse. Against this prevailing view, some scholars in the field of the sociology of education claim that "ijime suicides" existed in the past, and bullying condition may not be getting worse, but what has happened is that people have become more sensitive. In other words, they refer to the social condition itself. However, if we strictly observe the methodological standard of social constructionism, the bracketing of the ontological status of "social problems, " we must conclude that they are making an error of "ontological gerrymandering." We may have a tendency to regard ijime as bullying. However, according to Jeff Coulter, To claim that 'X' is the same action as 'Y' can mean creating a connection between them rather than simply recording a pre-existing relationship. We may misunderstand the property of our description. According to Peter Winch, the human activity we study is carried on according to rules. Therefore, we need to study the rulefollowing discourse of "ijime suicide" carefully. I would claim that "ijime suicide" does not exist until people learn of this term and the discourse. This is not an empirical, but rather a conceptual problem. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to solve this problems and explain "ijime suicide" itself analytically by focusing on the discourse involved, and then to indicate the possibility that a discursive reformation can dissolve "ijime suicide."
著者
矢野 眞和
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, pp.65-81, 2012-06-15 (Released:2013-06-17)

本稿では,「政策」という補助線を設けることによって,学力と責任の関係を考察する。はじめに,学力政策の基本的枠組みに基づいて,学力政策の特質を二つ指摘し,この特質と責任の関係を述べた。一つに,学力は,生徒と教師の相互行為から生産される共同生産物であり,製品のような製造物責任を問うことが難しい。いま一つの特質として,教育に投入される資源の性質に着目する必要があり,法的責任とは別に教育費の経済的責任が重要になる。 第二に,学力の生産関数を測定する困難性を整理した。この困難に早急な解決を図ろうとする政治勢力が重なると「もっともらしいけれども,危うい」政治ショーが起きやすくなる。 第三に,困難な学力問題を広く理解するためには,国民の意識ないし世論の動きを視野に入れる必要性があることを指摘し,私たちが実施した「教育と社会保障の意識調査」結果を報告した。わが国の生涯政策への関心・選好・税負担の意識には,強いシルバーポリティクス(年齢格差)が働いており,教育政策への関心は二次的,三次的な優先順位になっている。「教育劣位社会」とでもいうべき日本の現状を明らかにした。 最後に,わが国の生涯政策の経済的責任がねじれていることを踏まえて,学力政策とトータルの教育政策を議論する一つの道筋を提示した。
著者
浜井 浩一
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, pp.143-162, 2007-05-31

Although Japan traditionally enjoyed a reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries in the world, since the late 1990s its crime rates have increased and clear up rate have dropped. It now appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in the effectiveness of the criminal justice system and is more anxious about safety. The Japanese public now believes that young offenders are becoming increasingly violent and that more and more adolescents are committing serious offenses. This view stems from a belief that there has been a breakdown in family life and that as a consequence, young people have become more amoral. In response, the Japanese government is trying to overhaul the national education curriculum, with a major focus on imposing and improving public morality. However, a careful examination of crime statistics shows that the perception of ever-increasing youth crime is groundless. There has been no decline in the age of youngest offenders. On the contrary, the average age of young offenders has risen, partly because the job market for young people, especially those without skills and/or a high school diploma, has become tight. The delinquency rate in Japan used to peak at age of 15 and then drop sharply. Most juvenile delinquents had ceased to offend by the age of 20. There is a large gap between what the public believes about youth offenses and the reality. The measures adopted by the government to prevent youth offenses, mainly focusing on morality, are based on a kind of stereotypical young offender. If the government continues to ignore the real problem, i. e., the shrinking job market for unskilled young people, it will create a self-fulfilling prophecy of future violent offenses by young people.
著者
牧野 智和
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.129-146, 2006-05-31

The purpose of this study is to examine the feelings of "uneasiness" that have become the dominant image where we consider the issue of juvenile crime, and which became the driving force for the enactment of various ordinances. The material used for this examination is reports of the juvenile crimes in the pseudo-environment that mediates the holding of this image, that is, in the mass media. Concretely, the analysis and consideration were done based on reports on juvenile homicides in "Asahi Shimbun" in the postwar period. As a result, the following tendencies in recent years have been extracted as a symptom that people have come to feel uneasiness. 1) The number of juveniles arrested on charges of homicide in recent years is low compared with the peak in the 1950s and 1960s. However, newspaper reports on homicides have become much more numerous since 1997. This made people widely aware of crimes by "ordinary children," and it appears that this is related to the uneasiness people feel that they or their children might be victims of juvenile crime or that their child might become an assailant. 2) In recent years, the malicious nature and cruelty of assailants is often reported along with the tendency to focus on "psychological problems" (kokoro no yami) in the articles. As a result, assailants and their parents and teachers have been subjected to criticism that did not exist in the past. 3) From the same focus on "psychology," references to "child-rearing" and "educational methods" have been made from a professional viewpoint by specialists in psychology. As a result, everyday life, which was once self-evident, has come under questioning. Moreover, the usage of psychological terms in recent years has been used not only to label assailants as abnormal, but also to make parents and teachers reflexively think, "Is your child OK?" It was thought that the rise of uneasiness is related to these psychological references that destroy the self-evidence of everyday life of parents and teachers.
著者
湯川 やよい
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, pp.163-184, 2011-06-10 (Released:2014-06-03)
被引用数
1 or 1

本研究は,高等教育・研究者養成における教員─学生関係の社会学研究として,アカデミック・ハラスメントの形成過程を明らかにする。そのため,医療系の女性大学院生を事例に,学生が「被害」を認識する契機となるエピソードに着目し,被害の背景にある教員─学生間の信頼関係の変遷を,対話的構築主義アプローチを用いたライフストーリーとして再構成する事例研究を行う。 考察の結果,学生が「被害」と認識した出来事は,それ単独として存在するのではなく,多忙化した教員の研究・教育関与の低下,研究室間の不文律システム,教員同士の確執等,日常に埋め込まれた諸文脈の累積により学生の教員への信頼が失われ,その結果初めて学生にとって不快で不当な「ハラスメント被害」が構築されるという過程が明らかになった。 また,対話的構築主義アプローチをとったことにより,上記のハラスメント形成過程は,従来のアカデミック・フェミニズムの中でのモデル・ストーリーとなってきた「ジェンダー要因を中核とするハラスメント体験」の語りに対してずれを含む新たな対抗言説として導出された。 研究室の教員─学生関係で生じる困難を,単に学生相談の臨床心理からのみ論じるのではなく,背景にあるジェンダー関与的文脈と非関与的文脈の総体について社会学的に検討し,政策・教育機能分析と指導の実践レベルの研究とを接続する必要があると考える。
著者
上床 弥生
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, pp.27-48, 2011-11-30 (Released:2012-12-03)
被引用数
5 or 0

本稿の目的は,中学校における生徒文化とジェンダーの関係に注目し,ジェンダーを軸としたピア・グループの分化とそれによる秩序形成・維持のメカニズムを明らかにすることである。 その際,本稿では Wieder の「コード」概念を援用し,中学校での学級観察と生徒へのインタビュー調査から,生徒同士が共有するジェンダーに関するコードを「ジェンダー・コード」として抽出し,分析に用いた。 分析の結果明らかとなったのは,中学校の教室では,生徒の行動をコントロールするコードとして,男子と女子との間の距離化や男子優位の上下関係で行為を説明するジェンダー・コードが,圧倒的に重要なものとして存在していたことであった。フォーマルな学校教育においてはジェンダーが回避されているにも関わらず,生徒たち自身が,行為解釈のなかでジェンダー秩序を維持していたのである。 もちろん本調査でも,ある場面をめぐって男子と女子で解釈に用いるコードが対立し,ジェンダー・コード自体が揺らぐこともあった。しかし,その場合でも,生徒による再解釈過程を経て,ジェンダー・コードはさらに修復・維持されていった。 このように,本稿ではジェンダー・コードが,特に中学校の教室においてはいかに秩序維持と分かちがたく結び付き,また生徒同士の関係性においても重要なものとして機能しているのかが示されたのである。
著者
吉田 美穂
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.89-109, 2007-11-30

This paper examines the control system of secondary schools and teachers' survival strategies in the 2000s, a time known as an era of accountability, through an ethnography of a low-ranked high school in the metropolitan area. Student guidance and maintaining school order are important tasks for Japanese teachers. The culture of administration in secondary education has changed over time. In the late 1990s, a "counseling mentality" and "internal understanding" were emphasized in student guidance rather than administering the exterior aspect of students, under the system of "kanri kyoiku", until the 1980s. Earlier papers indicate that there was a process of "consummatorization of schooling." How, then, is order maintained in schools in the 2000s? The main data for this paper were gathered from April 2005 to August 2006. Participatory observation and interviews were carried out to describe the control system under which teachers avoided conflict with students. For example, teachers kept discipline indirectly by recording absence times in five-minute units. The maximum period of absence for receiving credits for the class was made known to students who were considered problematic and who tended to miss class. Some inappropriate behaviors, such as failing to wear the school uniform and eating in class, were also dealt with as absent time. In this way, teachers were able to keep their classes in order and avoid conflicts with students. Teachers often behaved gently and kindly, supporting the students under the assumption of this count system. In this paper, this behavior by teachers is called "Osewa mode, " with osewa meaning "caring" in Japanese. The teachers used this strategy to conceal their authority to set rules and to keep order in a way that avoided conflicts with students. They soothed students with gentle behavior and familiar words. They often directed students' attention to the absent time count and advised them to attend classes with a proper attitude. This strategy was transmitted to other teachers through group interactions. The school kept order through a "Control system to avoid conflict with students" and the "Osewa Mode, " which is an individual strategy based on that system. On the other hand, this system and strategy fits well into an era of accountability. Teachers often gave notification to parents of the numerical value of the absent time count. This made it easy for teachers to justify their treatment of students to their parents. Teachers' culture differs by regions. Therefore, there are some limits to the usefulness of the descriptions in this paper, as they would differ in different teachers' cultures in rural areas. However, the metropolitan area tends to lead in the areas of accountability, loss of teachers' authority and "consumerization of schooling." Thus, the "Osewa Mode" and "Control system to avoid conflict with students" in this ethnography in the metropolitan area may show important characteristics of teachers' culture in the 2000s.
著者
丸山 和昭
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, pp.85-104, 2004-11-15 (Released:2011-03-18)

Organizations of clinical psychologist were organized on two occasions in Japan at the initiative of professional societies. The move toward professionalization in the 1960s used a strategy which gave priority to the acquisition of specialist status and autonomy than to obtaining a state-granted qualification. As a result, it failed to obtain the support of professionals working in the clinical field. However, in the 1970s, the whole clinical mental occupation reached consensus on the need to promote specialist status, from a sense of crisis brought about by the unwillingness of the Ministry of Health and Welfare and doctors to create a qualification. In the second professionalization in the 1980s, calls were made for the advancement of specialist status and the establishment of a training system. Thanks to a strategy of professionalization aimed at developing an educational field, it came to attain “miraculous” growth.This professionalization of clinical psychologists was based on the leadership of professional societies, which developed specialist attributes for the cultivation of a “science-profession” core based on a “dual strategy”, to gain professional status. The clinical psychologists used a dual strategy toward the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Education, expanded the market autonomously and produced a great deal of “science-profession.” However, it can be said that the professional society-led model has the danger of following the route of very unstable professionalization, which can be easily influenced of many domains although it has the potential for expanding new markets and the development of an autonomous training system.
著者
久冨 善之
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, pp.43-64, 2012-06-15 (Released:2013-06-17)
被引用数
3 or 0

小論は「教育と責任」の問題を,学校・教師と親とが教育をめぐってどのような応答・責任関係を構成するのかという課題として,3・11大震災・原発事故とそれに続く状況の中で考察したものである。 「落第のない義務教育学校」や「献身的教師像」は日本の学校文化・教員文化の特徴であると考えられる。そこには学校と教師が,子どもを学校で教育する責任を積極的に引き受ける〈前面性〉があり,それを回路に個々の学校と教師は,子ども・親から「信頼・権威」を調達して,元来難しい近代学校教育の仕事を,何とか乗り切って来た。それは不安定さをはらむ「学校・教師と親との関係構成」を安定化するのに寄与したものと分析した。 戦後日本の社会変化の中では,上のような伝統的関係構成にもいくつかの再編があったと考える。それを「学校・教師の黄金時代」から過渡期を経て,第Ⅲ期(90年代半ば〜今日)の「学校・教師の困難と教育改革」時代へという展開として記述した。Ⅲ期では伝統的な〈前面性〉が,信頼・権威調達回路から,逆に個々の学校・教師が,学校教育への不信・不満・非難の矢面に立つ関係構成へという転化が生じた。その〈前面性〉が衝立になって,責任ある教育官僚機構はその陰で非難を免れ「公正なる改革者」として登場して,親・国民からの学校・教師への非難を追い風に次々と学校・教員制度改革を進行させている。 それらが学校と教師をいっそう圧迫する現状が好ましくないとすれば,どんな関係構成の再編があり得るだろうか。一つは親と教師・学校の「相互非難関係」から「困難の相互共有関係」への可能性として,もう一つは「押しつければ改革成功」とする評価方式を「第三者による教育政策・改革のアセスメント」方式の必要性として,大震災と続く状況下でそれらが試されている点を考察した。
著者
友田 泰正
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.185-195, 1970-10-10

The problem of this article is to determine the regional differences in college enrollment ratio and to explore the determinants of these differences. The determination of the college enrollment ratio in each prefecture is not easy because the data on the exact number of re-enrollment and on the statistical universe in each prefecture are not available. In this article, I tried to determine the college enrollment (and application) ratio by including the number of re-enrollment as far as the data are available and by defining the junior high school graduates of 1964 (and 1965) as a statistical universe. There is a large variability in application ratio from 43% of Tokyo to 11% of Aomori. Generally, highly urbanized prefectures such as Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Nara, Kyoto, Hyogo, Kagawa, and Hiroshima are high in the ratio. There is also a variability in the college enrollment ratio from 39% of Tokyo to 11% of Aomori. In order to explore the determinants of these regional differences, the following six factors were employed as independent variables: (a) proportion of administrative, managerial, and professional workers; (b) proportion of non-agricultural workers; (c) proportion of senior high school or college graduates; (d) per capita income; (e) proportion of urban population; (f) dispersion of college campuses. Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients were computed. Results showed very high correlation coefficients: for instance, for four-year college application ratio, 0.9132 with (c); 0.9012 with (a); 0.8835 with (d); 0.8668 with (b).
著者
武石 典史
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, pp.25-45, 2010-11-30

教育社会学的な歴史研究は,官僚群との対立や青年将校運動といった昭和陸軍の動きを,「陸軍将校=農業層」「帝大生・官僚=新中間層」という階層的差異をもとに葛藤モデルから論じてきている。しかし,そこでは陸軍将校の有力構成員たる陸幼組は分析対象から捨象されがちだった。本稿は,陸軍将校を「陸幼組/中学組」という二つの集団に分けつつ,その選抜,学歴キャリア,昇進の諸構造を検討したうえで,昭和陸軍の動向に考察を加えるものである。陸軍将校を構成する陸幼組と中学組は社会的背景の重なりは小さかった。また,前者が陸士,陸大の成績が良かったゆえ,昇進でも(農業出身の多い)後者より優勢だった。すなわち,学歴・成績主義を原理に形成される将校集団の構造は,上層において農業色が弱化し都会色が強まるという傾向を帯びていたのである。大正後期以降の政治的変化のなかで,陸軍は自己益と国益を,統帥権という威力に拠って重ね合わせていこうとする。統帥権の顕在化,および軍事専門職としての強い自覚を促すという,新たな社会状況のなかで始動した昭和陸軍の主力は,農業出身層ではなく,二・三代目の武官たちであり,官・軍エリートの衝突もこの文脈で把握されるべきだと思われる。確かに,農業層出身の陸軍将校は少なくなかった。しかし,彼らは昇進構造において傍流に位置し,影響力をもちえなかったのである。
著者
平木 耕平
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.83, pp.107-127, 2008-12-15

What significance did people give to "entering university from local areas" in Japan in the period following the Second World War? And how have their views changed in the time since? To answer these questions, this paper focuses on the "advanced course" of Tottori prefectural senior-high schools, using the methods of political-sociology. The "advanced course" of Tottori prefectural senior-high schools is sometimes called a "publicly funded cram school." The teachers of the prefectural schools give instruction to students who are preparing for a new chance to enter university after failing the first time. In the period around 1960, there were still no private cram schools in Tottori Pref., but the number of students hoping for a second chance to enter university was rapidly increasing. In response, teachers at one prefectural senior-high school began to give them instruction on a volunteer basis, and a few years later, the Board of Education institutionalized it as the "advanced course." This system was spread within the prefecture by the Board. Judging from this analysis, it may be said that the Governor, administrators and teachers recognized the disadvantageous condition of the local prefecture, and devised a policy to train talented youth as a means to overcome the backwardness of their home region. However, a debate on whether the "advanced course" of prefectural senior-high schools should be maintained or not began in Tottori Pref. about 2005. Private cram schools asked for the abolition of the "advanced course," because the social changes since 1990s had hurt their business. As a result, this demand became a focus of public policy in the prefectural assembly. The groups on both sides of the issue disagreed fundamentally on whether the course should be maintained or abolished, but agreed in regarding the "advanced course" as a device for meeting the "needs of individuals." With the massification of university education, the existence of the "external effect," meaning the social profit brought about by higher education, has come into question. In addition, the "needs of society," meaning the survival of the local prefecture, is not recognized within the policy of the modern "non-profit-sharing" model. In comparison with the "supplementary courses" established by PTAs, which perform a similar function in senior high schools of other prefectures, people do not feel a justification to spend public money on Tottori prefecture's "advanced courses." This leads to the hypothesis that the significance of "entrance into university from local areas" changes with the movement in perspective from social profit to personal profit. This means that the circuit between "education" and "society/economy" has been severed. Hence, the nurturing and outflow of talented youth from local prefectures is no longer seen as the main issue. However, local prefectures have been seriously affected by recent changes in both the industrial structure and decentralization. Now is the time to rebuild the tripartite affinity between "education," "society/economy" and "local areas."
著者
志田 未来
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, pp.303-323, 2015-05-29 (Released:2016-07-19)

本稿の目的は,子どもの視点からひとり親家庭研究に新たな理論的視角を提示することにある。これまでのひとり親家庭に関する研究は,彼らの生活を経済的な不利に収束しがちであったこと,子どもを主体として捉えることがなされてこなかったことなどの課題を残していた。そこで本稿はひとり親家庭の子どもに対する聞き取りから得られたデータを基に,ひとり親家庭という構造の中で子どもが主体としてどのように生き抜こうとしているのかについて検討した。 調査より明らかにされたのは以下の二点である。第一に,彼らは自己の家庭経験にアンビバレントな感情を持ちながらも自己の家庭経験を肯定的に理解しようとしている。第二に,同居親との関わりには多様性があったが,同居親以外のつながりを豊富に持ち,それを活かしながらうまく生き抜こうとしている。 このことから二つの次元における承認の重要性が導き出された。第一に,ひとり親の子どもたちにとって,自己の複雑な家庭経験を正当なものとして理解するために自己・他者からの承認を要している。そしてその役割を果たしているのが,同じひとり親の子どもであった。第二に,ひとり親家庭であることに対して周囲から承認を得ることによって,彼らは家庭外の豊富なつながりを持つ基盤を獲得している。 以上より,本稿は従来から指摘されてきた経済的な再配分に加え,承認の観点が必要であることを提示した。
著者
丸山 和昭
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, pp.85-104, 2004-11-15

Organizations of clinical psychologist were organized on two occasions in Japan at the initiative of professional societies. The move toward professionalization in the 1960s used a strategy which gave priority to the acquisition of specialist status and autonomy than to obtaining a state-granted qualification. As a result, it failed to obtain the support of professionals working in the clinical field. However, in the 1970s, the whole clinical mental occupation reached consensus on the need to promote specialist status, from a sense of crisis brought about by the unwillingness of the Ministry of Health and Welfare and doctors to create a qualification. In the second professionalization in the 1980s, calls were made for the advancement of specialist status and the establishment of a training system. Thanks to a strategy of professionalization aimed at developing an educational field, it came to attain "miraculous" growth. This professionalization of clinical psychologists was based on the leadership of professional societies, which developed specialist attributes for the cultivation of a "science-profession" core based on a "dual strategy", to gain professional status. The clinical psychologists used a dual strategy toward the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Education, expanded the market autonomously and produced a great deal of "science-profession." However, it can be said that the professional society-led model has the danger of following the route of very unstable professionalization, which can be easily influenced of many domains although it has the potential for expanding new markets and the development of an autonomous training system.