著者
児美川 佳代子
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.43-52, 1993-03-30

There have been two ways of understanding about the original form of the simultaneous teaching. Some preceding studies regard the monitorial system, especially arranged according to Lancasterian plan, as the origin. Others attribute it to David Stow's "gallery lesson". This paper has attempted to clarify the essential qualities of the simultaneous teaching, inquiring into the differences between the monitorial system and Stow's system. Monitorial system had dual aspects of simultaneity; one was the simultaneous class teaching by the monitors, and the other was the simultaneous behavior of all the pupils, which evoked the pupils' readiness for the following lessons. The mechanical repetition of these simultaneous learning and behaving kept the order of monitorial schools. On the other hand, the moral influence of master and the mutual sympathy of pupils made possible Stow's simultaneous instruction at the gallery. Curiously, in spite of these differences, the arrangements of Stow's schoolroom had something in common with that of Lancasterian school. Furthermore, Stow also emphasized the importance of "physical exercises" which called the attention of the pupils at the commencement of a lesson. For example, "rising up and sitting down simultaneously" was imposed upon the pupils. So it comes to light that Stow's simultaneous instruction as well as Lancasterian system included the simultaneous behavior for order. Consequently, it can be said that the simultaneous teaching was not only a instructing method but also a way of school management. Therefore it has supported the disciplinary power of modern schools.

言及状況

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モニトリアル・システムについてはその具体的な実践や社会背景について下記文献に詳しい説明があります. 「近代イギリス大衆学校における一斉教授の成立について」 http://hdl.handle.net/2261/630 「19世紀ニューヨーク市における一斉教授法の成立過程」 http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007093290 「実 ...

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近代イギリス大衆学校における一斉教授の成立について 著者: 児美川, 佳代子 著者(別言語): Komikawa, Kayoko 発行日: 1993年3月30日 出版者: 東京大学教育学部 (モニトリアル・システムなど。)

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