著者
遠藤 芳信
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.147-163, 1976-03-30

The "Military Drill" in this treatise means an education and a drill that the man except for the army enforces the education and drill of the action, technique and knowledge of the battle irfthe army to involve the peculiar object and the educational meaning respectively. What "the man except for the army enforces to involve the peculiar object and the educational meaning" had been enforced, historically, in the sense of the line in the chain of the military preparatory education, first, and the National Education and the Formation of the People, especially, the moral and spiritual building, or the gumnastic, second. As rules for teachiing and a teaching syllabus to come under the category of the above of the "Military Drill" in the school education in Japan, we had had the Particulars of the Army Gumnastic of the Common Middle School in 1886, be for 1910 s, and the Drill in the Teaching Syllabus of the School Gumnastic in 1913 and the Teaching Syllabus of the Drill in 1925, since 1910 s, for example. The "Military Drill" in Japan had aimed at the National Education and the Formation of the People consistently. And, if we analyze the contents and methods of the "Military Drill", firstly we must research into the means of the Formation of the People that the contents and methods of the "Military Drill" involve, and especially we must research into the relation of the combination on the human about the rule and obedience in the contents and methods of the "Military Drill", because, it be able to think that the intentional reletion of the combination on the human about the rule and obedience especially in the social relations is important to the formation of the people and their personalities. So, I will research into the relation of the combination on the human about the rule and obedience in the contents and methods of the "Military Drill". Well, if we begin to analyze the contents and methods of the "Military Drill", first we must investigate the drill regulations for the infantry by way of the base teaching materials of the Drill since 1910s, because, the Drill in the Teaching Syllabus of the School Gumnastic in 1913 had expressed clealy that "the Drill complies with the rules of the drill regulations for the infantry", for example. Namely, the "Military Drill" of the School Education in Japan had been baseed on the drill regulations for the infantry. And, the Drill in the Teaching Syllabus of the School Gumnastic in 1913 had complied with the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1909, meanwhile, the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1909 had played up the fundamental principle of the editing till the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1940. And, the Revision of the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1909 had been editied after the Russo-Japanese War. So, it is necessary for us to investigate the precept and battle on the Russo-Japanese War in the Japanese Army to analyze the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1909, and the contents and methods of the "Military Drill" since 1910 s. By reason of the above, in this treatise, I investigate some basic problems of the precept and the battle on the Russo-Japanese War in the Japanese Army together with the Drill Regulations for the Infantry in 1909 within the object of the analysis of the contents and methods of the "Military Drill" since 1910 s. At this time, it is exceedingly important for us to criticize the esteem of the mind and spiritual energy as fidtitious form that had been emphasised in the Japanese Army. And, I have tried to clarify that the Japanese Army had never set value on the mind and spiritual energy in their drill and the education in army. It was not the mind and spiritual energy but the force and violence that the Japanese Army had set value on. Namely, the Japanese Army had payed attention to the meanings of the Formation of the People that the contents and methods of the combination on the human about the rule and obedience (the limitless watch and interference toward the mind and thoughts, the control of the specific type of the action, the scorn of the personality in accordance with the force and violence, the distrust toward the soldier, the negation of the originality of the soldier) in the drill regulations for the infantry and the education in army bring to completion. And, the Military Authorities in Japan would have strengthened the poritical power of the domination in accordance with the magnification of the above Drill (and the Education in Army) throughout all the branch of the National Education, intentionally, and systematically, since the Russo-Japanese War.
著者
佐藤 学 岩川 直樹 秋田 喜代美
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.177-198, 1991-03-30
被引用文献数
18

It is well known that expert teachers form and use elaborate practical knowledge and thinking styles in their teaching. This paper illuminates five expert teachers' and five novice teachers' practical thinking in on-line (thinking aloud) and off-line (writing report) monitoring. Through comparing the experts' thought processes with novices, our research comes to a conclusion that the practical thinking styles of expert teachers are characterized as the following five features: (1) impromptu thinking in teaching, (2) active, sensitive and deliberative involvement in an ill-structured situation, (3) multiple view points to probe and to detect a practical problem, (4) contextualized thinking in pedagogical reasoning, and (5) problem framing and reframing strategy in a context. The result offers several implications for rethinking the concept of teaching expertise.
著者
渡部 洋 曹 亦薇
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.253-256, 1993-03-30
被引用文献数
1

The effects of handwriting on scoring essay tests were explored. The data were obtained from a newspaper company. The examinees were the applicants for the company jobs, and they were asked to write a small essay under the title of "About nation". The essays written by the applicants were copied and are called "handwriting" in this paper. The same paper were typed by a word-processor and are called "word-processed" in this paper. Five university or school teachers rated the essays. It was found that 1. there were no consistent differences between the averaged scores of handwriting and word-processed essays. 2. there were significant differences among rators.
著者
秋田 喜代美
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.221-232, 1993-03-30
被引用文献数
2

Recently many researchers began to research on teachers' cognition in the classroom. This paper reviews these studies under three topics as follows : (1) studies on decision-making processes, (2) studies on nature of knowledge for teaching, (3) studies on formation of the knowledge. First, as for research on decision-making processes, an elaborated model was developed and the differences between experts and novices about perceptions of events in classrooms and about inferences and decisions have been demonstrated. The more researches are needed about the inferences on students' learning of specific substances. Second, as for the nature of knowledge, context specificity and personal propensity of the knowledge are demonstrated from the studies about content of knowledge, representation of knowledge, and beliefs. Third, on the formation of knowledge, researches into reflection on teaching and mentoring processes have been focused and progressed. Finally, careful selections for research methods and necessity of original studies in Japan are pointed.
著者
児美川 佳代子
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.43-52, 1993-03-30

There have been two ways of understanding about the original form of the simultaneous teaching. Some preceding studies regard the monitorial system, especially arranged according to Lancasterian plan, as the origin. Others attribute it to David Stow's "gallery lesson". This paper has attempted to clarify the essential qualities of the simultaneous teaching, inquiring into the differences between the monitorial system and Stow's system. Monitorial system had dual aspects of simultaneity; one was the simultaneous class teaching by the monitors, and the other was the simultaneous behavior of all the pupils, which evoked the pupils' readiness for the following lessons. The mechanical repetition of these simultaneous learning and behaving kept the order of monitorial schools. On the other hand, the moral influence of master and the mutual sympathy of pupils made possible Stow's simultaneous instruction at the gallery. Curiously, in spite of these differences, the arrangements of Stow's schoolroom had something in common with that of Lancasterian school. Furthermore, Stow also emphasized the importance of "physical exercises" which called the attention of the pupils at the commencement of a lesson. For example, "rising up and sitting down simultaneously" was imposed upon the pupils. So it comes to light that Stow's simultaneous instruction as well as Lancasterian system included the simultaneous behavior for order. Consequently, it can be said that the simultaneous teaching was not only a instructing method but also a way of school management. Therefore it has supported the disciplinary power of modern schools.
著者
遠藤 利彦
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.229-241, 1990-03-30

The term "transitional object" was first used by Winnicott (1953) to refer to inanimate objects, e. g. a soft toy or blanket, often specially used to provide comfort or solace in infancy and early childhood. A number of psychoanalysts and empirical researchers have followed Winnicott, and today it is generally accepted that infant's attachment to a transitional object is universal on the basis of the "good-enough" relationship of mother and infant, and that its absence or misuse is associated with psychopathy, later cognitive or character disorders. Nevertheless there appear to be some logical fallacies in this conceptualization and important unanswered questions about the origin and meaning of transitional objects, which need further consideration. In this paper, a theoretical contradiction of Winnicott's thesis is pointed out and an alternative interpretation of the origin and meaning of transitional objects is submitted.
著者
紅林 伸幸
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.147-155, 1993-03-30

Kohlberg's Moral-developmental theory is one of the most outstanding studies of Morality at present. But it is far from being the general theory of Morality. Because it is lacking in the perspective of the theory of Society. The purpose of this paper is an investigation of the possibility that the theory of Morality regenerates as the theory of Society, it focusing on the Reification-problem which most of sociologists regard as one of the most important social-philosophical themes in the modern society. In this paper we consider M. Horkheimer & T. W. Adorno's theory, J. Habermas's, W. Hiromatsu's, and N. Luhmann's as some examples of theories about the Post-Reificational Society. Those theories require deconstruction on Kohlberg's theory.
著者
宮崎 あゆみ
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.169-177, 1993-03-30

This research examines student subcultures with a gender perspective, using the ethnographic approach on a girls' high school. In this paper I call subcultures studied with gender frameworks in mind "gendered subcultures". In the first part, I briefly review traditional subculture studies and school organization studies which have overlooked such aspects as gender roles and femininity and masculinity. I also review the debate about single sex education v. s. co-education. This debate focuses on sexism within schools and subcultures related to girls' academic achievement. In contrast, this research focuses on femininity and gender roles as aspects of gendered subcultures. In the second part, the research, focusing on femininity of girls, shows that, within a girls' high school, there are gendered subcultures free from femininity, peculiar to a single sex school, but that they both accommodate and resist femininity out of school. It is confirmed that femininity is not fixed but changing.
著者
米沢 彰純
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.p149-162, 1994

Tuition is an important factor for understanding the economic behavior of private colleges and universities in Japan. As the market in which universities compete one another is highly segmented and specialized, it is difficult to find a general axiom for setting the tuition levels. Analysis on tuition at private institutions for academic year 1991-1992 suggests that there are several patterns in the economic behavior of Japan's private universities, and that the behavioral patterns and tuition levels are substantially influenced by the competence or position at the higher education market.
著者
裏田 武夫 小川 剛
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.153-189, 1965-09-30
著者
佐藤 学 秋田 喜代美 岩川 直樹 吉村 敏之
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.183-200, 1992-03-30
被引用文献数
6

This paper presents practical thinking styles which six expert teachers display in monitoring a videotape of science teaching. Three issues are taken into consideration. First, through describing their thought processes, we inquire the rhetorics which the thoughtful practitioners use. Next, the concept of pedagogical expertise is examined. In accord with uncertainty and complexity of teaching situation, pedagogical expertise should be regarded as of being complicated. Finally, we rethink such conceptions as context of generating practical knowledge, function of pedagogical content knowledge and role of case method in teacher education, in order to promote further research on teachers' practical thinking.
著者
沖津 由紀
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.105-115, 1991-03-30

The Japanese people show remarkable adherance to their academic achievement, though it does not have so strong influence on their socio-economic status as in other societies. This paper attempts to explain why academic achievement has such symbolic and mental prestige in Japan. This prestige is not only seen in the educational system, but also in various scenes outside the educational sphere. Therefore it is possible to regard the prestige of academic achievement in Japan as one of the linkage-patterns of the educational system to its environment. I show an alternative theoretical framework after examining how the possibility of education-outer linkage has been explained by pre- dominant theories. I contend that the highly symbolic and mental prestige of academic achievement in Japanese society derives from that function as a medium linking the educational system to its environment. Unlike Euro-American societies, the Japanese educational system links to its outer society almost only through the academic achievement as a symbolic medium.
著者
森 重雄
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.75-101, 1989-03-30

This paper presents a history of sociology of education. However, following discourse is not a textual one, because it is written from author's particular standpoint named "schoolization theory". The object of this historical review of sociology of education is to delineate the significance of schoolization as one of the themes in this discipline. So we engage to connect the development of sociological object-identification for education which is summarized in three stages, that is pre-sociology of education, orthodox sociology of education, current sociology of education, with the concept of schoolization. In this respect, following discourse is not merely an academic history of sociology of education, but lays an underplot to demonstrate the importance and possibilities of "schoolization theory" in sociology of education.
著者
遠藤 利彦
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.203-220, 1993-03-30

Many theorists suggest that an individual's past relationship experiences with his or her own parents are carried forward and reenacted in subsequent relationships, especially present relationships established with his or her own children. This notion of intergenerational transmission of caregiver-child relationships originated in psychoanalytic theories, and later came to be explored in association with child-maltreatment, attachment, and so on. Bowlby postulated that children internalize their transactional patterns with caregivers and construct representational models, i. e. "internal working models", of self and other in attachment relationships, and that these models, used to perceive and appraise informations and to plan future actions, then govern relationship patterns with others. Currently Bowlby's concept of "internal working models" offers a new framework for understanding intergenerational transmission of attachment relationships. In this paper, a wide variety of theoretical, clinical, and empirical studies concerning this theme were reviewed, and, in addition, directions for continued research were discussed.
著者
伊藤 忠弘
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.153-162, 1992-03-30

Since Jones & Berglas (1978) presented the conception of self-handicapping, a lot of empirical research on self-handicapping was reported. Some reseachers drew a distinction between "acquired" (or "behavioral") self-handicapping such as drug ingestion, alcohol consumption, effort reduction, and choosing a difficult task, and "claimed" (or "self-reported") self-handicapping such as verbal claim to be ill, socially anxious, test anxious, or in a bad mood. This paper reviewed these studies from three points of view : (a) the situational factors that elicit or inhibit self-handicapping, (b) the individual differences in self-handicapping behavior, (c) the effects of self-handicapping on its users and audiences.
著者
馬場 久志
出版者
東京大学教育学部
雑誌
東京大学教育学部紀要 (ISSN:04957849)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.297-305, 1988-02-10

Ten students were given a task to find the division procedure on a hand-operated calculator. Their acts and verbal protecols in the task were recorded on VTR. The procedure in question is based on repeated subtractions, and is very similar to written calculation in many ways. In spite of the similarity of their procedures, there is two reasons for which the task will be hard for adult subjects to solve. 1. Students think that dividing equally is the dominant aspect as their 'division-concept', so this thinking will interfere with their finding out the procedures of repeated subtraction. 2. Students have a kind of 'belief' about the function of a calculator, and they are apt to depend on it. Results showed difficulties for many of them. Moreover their characteristics of inferences, for example, avoidance for subtractions, and errors of columns, are consistent with two hypotheses of 'division-concepts' and 'belief' in calculators. Therefore it has revealed that the procedural learning cannot be improved even if one possesses a similar procedure, when one has opposite concepts. And it suggests the importance to consider the procedural learning in relation to the relevant concepts possessed by learners. Furthermore, it will become necessary to clarify the aspect of learning of new knowledge as the transformational process of a known concepts.