- vol.53, no.2, pp.175-194, 2006-12-20
Naginata appeared as a practical weapon instead of Hoko, which was one of Nagadogu (a generic name of some martial weapons such as spear, sword, and Naginata) in the past, and it was used mainly by samurai, monks or soldiers. From the end of Kamakura era, a weapon for battles switched it from Naginata to spears. Naginata was getting unused by an appearance of Nobunaga Oda. After the Edo era, Naginata revived as a decoration of the entrance hall of high-class samurai's house or as women and children's acquaintance of samurai family. The women's effect in home of such samurai families was not to use Naginata in a battlefield, but to use it for protecting themselves, families and for training their sons. Martial arts declined by the policy of dismantling a family with samurai antecedents in new Meiji government. Afterwards, Japan Butoku Asssociation (1895-1946) was established and the system to commend a martial artist in this group was completed. It was resolved to include Naginata and archery in the regular curriculum of physical education for girls in secondary school in 1936. The leaders and trainers of Naginata were educated in Butokuden (the training school) of Kyoto and Shuutokukan of Tokyo. After that, Naginata education was performed in all the elementary and junior high schools. The education of Naginata came to the prime of time in the provisional system during the Pacific Wars. However, after defeat of August 15, 1945, the class of Naginata at school carried out under the wartime was called off. Butoku Festival was performed in Kyoto on May 4, 1953 after the war, when the consultation was held to make an organization of Naginata. As a result, All Japan Naginata Federation was founded on May 4, 1955. Though the name of Naginata written in three types of letters had not been unified since the old days, it was finally expressed with the kana letters which are a letter of a woman from Heian period. Now, martial arts Naginata of Mothers revives.