- 文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
- vol.20, no.1, pp.127-145, 2009-07-01
The beginning of modernization of Japan in history is uncertain although we may consider remarkable the introduction of western culture made by Mr Yukichi Fukuzawa who identified such technology as steam power, telecommunication, printing etc was the essence. Those are actually brought in Yokohama by the black ship when Commodore M.C. Perry exchanged Kanagawa Treaty of 1854 as the result of the expedition to Japan. The opening of two ports of Shimoda and Hakodate under Kanagawa Treaty is the output from the input of President Fillmore's letter to Emperor of Japan. Both of documents are two pages only which we could access easily today through internet. However, we have certain difficulty in reality if we try to understand what the black ship intended to aim through the expedition to Japan. This brief note is to approach to this basic inquiry in different ways from the various studies and attempts to emphasize the pioneer role for steamship in the Pacific Ocean.