著者
坪田 典子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.67-81, 2017-07-31

This paper is a case study of Yonezawa Hiroyasu, lived during the latter half of Meiji era throughTaisho era for Showa era, who had been writing a diary since he had started at the age of 19 until 85,from 1906 to 1972.Imperialist expansion over Korea, China and Asia is a dimension of the modernizing project ofmodern Japan that begins with a semi-colonized status to the position of an imperialist power. Boththe contentious and changing relations among Japan, Korea, China and the West, and Hiroyasu’sexperience that had undergone a change are major focus of this paper.The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the imperial mentality andthe national identity through an analysis of the formation of both his national identity and imperialmentality in modern Japan. This paper also considers his imperial mentality demonstrated in hisgreat interests for protest, imperialism, democracy, and the emperor, taken for a new, plus-valuedideas, views and systems that appears widely in his diary since the 1900s to 1920s.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.1-22, 2017-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine the idea of Dorothy Smith’s institutional ethnography(IE) though reading her early study, “Institutional Ethnography: A Feminist Research Strategy ”(Smith1987:151-179).In this article she re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationship betweenpeople’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations, and suggestedan alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world of people’s experience is put togetherby social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She applied Ethnomethodological notionof accountability to the institutional context and located institutional accounting practices tying localsettings of everyday world to the nonlocal organization of the ‘ruling apparatus’. Dorothy Smith’sIE explores how actual work processes are made accountable through institutional ideologicalprocedures that attend selectively to work processes, thus making only selective aspect of themaccountable within the institutional order. In so doing IE tries to break through to the penumbra notcomprehended by institutional accounting practices.Trough examining the idea of Smith’s IE, this paper tries to develop the method of sociologicalinquiry into knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.39-47, 2017-01-31

On May 17 in 1990, WHO resolved to remove the name of homosexuality from ICD-10. In thefield of psychiatry, the recognition that homosexuality is “disease” (disorder, illness or psychosis) haschanged significantly in the past 20 years. The review (discrimination and prejudice) of regardinghomosexuality as perverted, abnormal and unhealthy, has been under review in the general societyas well. Both homosexuality and heterosexuality have been considered as one of ways of humansexuality. WHO declared in 1993 that “homosexuality is not subject to treatment in any sense”.Homosexuality has been progressively depathologized in the international community since the1990 ’s. The 21st century became an era when homosexuality is not regarded as pathological (ill orpsychotic). In this paper, we would like to clarify the location of sexuality problem in the 21st centurysociety by tracing the history of such change.
著者
丸山 鋼二
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.129-155, 2001-02-01

Islam sects in Modern China are generally called "Three-big Sects and Four-big menhuan". The first Islam sect "Sufism brotherhood(menhuan)" was shaped 300 years ago, though Islam was introduced into China in 7th century. In opposition to the appearance of menhuan(jahariyah、Khufiyyah、Kubrawiyyah、Cadriyah), muslims who had maintained the traditional ceremony and system from old times called themselves "Qadim". Its characteristics is tolerance. In early 20th century the two sects were differentiated. One is a new sect "Ikhwani", which criticized both Qadim and menhuan strictly as unfaithful to the Koran. The other is Xidaotang, called "Chinese classics Sect". The doctrinal difference is not great among Islam sects in China. There are distinguished differences in the unessential problems of the religious ceremony and customs. Those differences frequently gave rise to a quarrel of bloodshed between Ikhawani and other sects in Modem China.
著者
伊津野 重満
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.19-30, 1993-01-01

After the USSR was dissolved, circumstances have qickly changed politically, economically and ideologically.Austria and Switzerland, permanently neutral states, which have been member states of the EFTA, have wanted to become member states of the EC since 1961. The USSR, Czechoslovakia and so on have, however, objected to their becoming member states of the EC because it would violate their legal status as neutral states. So permanently neutral states above mentioned and Sweden, ocasionally neutral states, could not become member states of the EC notwithstanding their wishes. That is because, if neutral states obtain membership in the EC, in the future they may be obliged by the EC to apply economic sanctions against belligerents due to it's common economic policy.But nowadays the concept of permanent neutrality ― immerw?hrende Neutralit?t ― and occasonal neutrality ― gelegentliche Neutralit?t ― is strongly affected by the dissolution of USSR and is changing.As is widely known, today the Republic of Russia as a successor of USSR is no longer a super power which could prevent neutral states from becoming member states of the EC, and has not the political motive to do so. It is therefore essential to consider for the future what the legal obligations of neutral states at present are.From the viewpoint of traditional international law, the auther tries to describe the obligations of occasonal neutral states in war time and permanently neutral states in peace time.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.1-20, 2018-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine the idea of Dorothy Smith’s institutional ethnography(IE) through reading her article “The Standard North American Family:SNAF as an Ideological Code”(Smith 1999:157-171).In her sociological investigation, Smith re-raised the classical sociological issue about therelationship between people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general socialrelations. And she suggested an alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world ofpeople’s experience is put together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world.The point of the “SNAF” article is to explore the operation of SNAF as‘ideological code’ withinwhat she called‘ruling relations’. Ruling relations are internally coordinated complex of administrative,managerial, professional, and discursive organization that regulates, organizers, governs, andcontrols our societies. Within these relations, SNAF code operates to coordinate multiple site throughtextually mediated discourses.In the “SNAF” article, ideological code is regarded as a constant generator of procedures forselecting syntax categories and vocabulary in the writing of formal texts and for interpreting sentences,written or spoken, ordered by it. Smith argues that SNAF-governed texts are ubiquitous and givediscursive body and substance to a version of The Family, and mask the actualities of people’s livesespecially when they do not accord with SNAF.Through examining the idea of Smith’s ‘textually mediated discourses’ and‘ideological code’, thispaper tries to develop the method of sociological inquiry into knowing the social from people’s actualeveryday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.1-18, 2018-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the idea of the social organization of textual realities in Dorothy Smith’s sociology.Smith’s sociology re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationship between people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations. And shesuggested an alternative sociology that explored how the everyday world of people’s experience is put together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She argued that traditional sociological method of inquiry translated people’s own knowledge of the world of their everyday practices into the objectified knowledge to make everyday world accountable within sociological discourse. On the other hand, her sociology locates the starting point of inquiry within people’s actual experience and their own knowledge.Based on Smith’s Institutional Ethnography (IE), this paper investigates institutional accounting practices which produce textual realities. According to IE, actual work processes are made accountable as text (factual account) through institutional ideological procedures which attend selectively to work processes, thus making only selective aspect of them accountable within the institutional order. For IE texts are integral because they organize the trans or extra-local relations that we participate in but cannot observe from our local site of being.This paper examines the way IE discovers and makes observable how texts enter into, organize, shape, and coordinate people’s doings as we participate in the objectifying relation of ruling. In so doing this paper tries to suggest the method of knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-16, 2019-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to study the concepts of work and work knowledges in DorothySmith’s Institutional Ethnography.Inspired by the thinking of a feminist group called the Wages for Housework group, she expanded the meaning of work not only into what people are paid to do but also into anything that people do that takes time, effort and intent. The concept of work in this “generous” sense orients the institutional ethnographer to what people are actually doing as they participate in institutional processes. Work knowledges refers to what people know of and in their work and how it is coordinated with the work of others. It is a major resource of the institutional ethnographer. Whether they are produced in interviewer-informant interchange or in participant observation, work knowledges should be evoked dialogically.After brief examination of the definition of these concepts in Smith’s argument, this paper tries to reconsider her researches on women’s mothering work for their children’s schooling. In so doing this paper tries to explicate how sociological investigation based on work and work knowledges could be proceeded. The work and work knowledges in this sense could not be accountable in institutional discourse. This paper explores how IE could discover what people know of and in their work and explore how it is coordinated with the work of others.Lastly, this paper discusses the problem of “institutional capture”. This is a barrier created by the ways in which institutional discourse may enter into the dialogue that produces work knowledges. The objectified knowledge in institutional discourse would subsume and displace descriptions based on experience and prevent the institutional ethnographer from accessing to the people’s work knowledges.Through examining the idea of Smith’s work and work knowledges, this paper tries to develop the method of sociological inquiry into knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.1-15, 2010-01-01

This paper considers some critical discussions about the sex/gender dualism. They argue that the dualism presupposes that on one hand there is crucial difference between women and men ; on the other hand there is crucial similarity among women (or men). This presupposition overlooks the difference among women (or men) and accepts the idea that there issome essential difference between women and men by assuming a natural sex without any social, cultural and historical contexts. Against the sex/gender dualism, an alternative view of gender has been discussed since 1990’.This view argues that, whether physically or socially taken, who is a ‘woman (or man)’ and what doesthat category mean are determined in a specifi c context. This view helps to reconsider the concept of gender which assumes the analytic distinction between sex and gender and argues that dividing someone into woman and man is itself a social, cultural and historical matter, namely “gender”. Adopting this view of gender, we can respecify the issues on the sociological investigationof gender. How division of sex can be articulated in each context can be itself an important issueon the sociological investigation of gender. Being a woman(or man) is produced through some activities and in itself a social phenomena. This paper explores a kind of view of language in these reconsiderations of the concept of gender. From this view of language, identifyng, recognizing or naming someone as a woman or man is not simply representation of some given object with language, but is itself doing something, namely a language ?use-practice. Being a woman (or man) is not a given social fact but a socialphenomena constructed in and through people’s language-use-practices. Through these examinations, this paper raises some issues on the sociological investigation of gender about what gender is and where we should fi nd the social phenomena of gender.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.1-16, 2017-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine some key concepts of Dorothy Smith’s feminist sociologythrough reading her early study, “Institutional Ethnography: A Feminist Research Strategy” (Smith1987:151-179). In this article she re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationshipbetween people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations, andsuggested an alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world of people’s experience isput together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She argued that traditionalsociological method of inquiry translates people’s own knowledge of the world of their everydaypractices into the objectified knowledge to make everyday world accountable within sociologicaldiscourse. On the other hand, her sociology locates the starting point of inquiry within people’s actualexperience and their own knowledge. The key concepts of her sociology, such as ‘the everyday worldas problematic’ ‘standpoint of women’ ‘institutional ethnography’ ‘work knowledge’, make visible howpeople are connected into the extended social relations of ruling from people’s standpoints. Throughexamining these concepts, this paper develops the method of sociological inquiry into knowing thesocial from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
瀧澤 道夫
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.127-145, 2009-07-01

The beginning of modernization of Japan in history is uncertain although we may consider remarkable the introduction of western culture made by Mr Yukichi Fukuzawa who identified such technology as steam power, telecommunication, printing etc was the essence. Those are actually brought in Yokohama by the black ship when Commodore M.C. Perry exchanged Kanagawa Treaty of 1854 as the result of the expedition to Japan. The opening of two ports of Shimoda and Hakodate under Kanagawa Treaty is the output from the input of President Fillmore's letter to Emperor of Japan. Both of documents are two pages only which we could access easily today through internet. However, we have certain difficulty in reality if we try to understand what the black ship intended to aim through the expedition to Japan. This brief note is to approach to this basic inquiry in different ways from the various studies and attempts to emphasize the pioneer role for steamship in the Pacific Ocean.
著者
斉藤 功高
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.61-79, 2000-02-01

Convention of the Rights of the Child came into force in Japan on May 22 in 1994. The purpose of this paper is to examine how much influence it has had on the circumstances of children's rights before and after May 22 in 1994. First, it will examine precedents before ratification of the Convention of the Rights of the Child and circumstances of the children's rights. Though the Convention wasn't in force at that time, we can find some suits which plaintiffs submitted in accordance with the Constitution of Japan as tests for protecting their human rights. But, courts didn't adopt it because Convention wasn't ratified yet. Second, it will discuss precedents after its ratification and how the Convention of the Rights of the Child has had an influence on them. We cannot find the dierct influence of the Convention in precedents after its ratification. But, if it is possible to apply some clauses of the Convention to suits for children's rights directly, its importance will increase more and more. Even if it is impossible to apply it directly to a given situation, it is possible to apply it as a test of human rights in the Constitution.\n 子どもの権利を包括的に規定した条約として子どもの権利条約が国連で採択されたのは1989年11月20日であり、わが国が批准したのは、1994年4月22日、国内的に効力が発生したのはその年の5月22日である。 そこで、子どもの権利条約が国内的効力を持つに至った1994年5月22日を便宜的に境として、それ以前とそれ以後で子どもの人権状況に判例はどう関わってきたかを検証していく。 もちろん、子どもの権利条約は、国際人権規約の子ども版といわれるように、内容的に自由権規約25条の選挙権に関する規定を除けば、国際人権規約に規定されている47か条の実体規定をほとんど採り入れていると言われているので、国際人権規約が国内的効力を持つに至った1979年9月21日以降も同規約が子どもの人権に関する判例に影響を及ぼしていると推察できるが、ここでは、包括的な子どもの権利を直接規定した子どもの権利条約を基に国内における子どもの人権裁判状況を見ていく。 裁判における憲法と子どもの人権についての関わりは、家永教科書第2次訴訟の高裁判決(昭和50年12月19日)、いわゆる畔上判決において、憲法判断を回避して行政法レベルで処分違法を判示したように、子どもの人権裁判においても憲法判断を回避して下位規範による事案の処理の傾向があるように思われる。しかし、畔上判決が説示しているように、「具体的な争訟について裁判する場合に、法律、命令、規則等に則った判断と憲法の解釈いかんによる判断とがともに前提となる時には、まず前者の判断をなし、その判断を経たうえで、なおも具体的な争訟解決のために憲法の解釈が前提となる場合にのみ憲法解釈について判断するのが裁判所における憲法審査のあり方」であるので、真正面から憲法解釈をした判決は全体からみれば数は少ないが、憲法解釈がなされた場合については適宜示していく。また、子どもの権利条約を援用している判例内容についてはより詳細に見ていくこととする。
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.11-26, 2019-01-31

There is a sociology of qualitative social research based on theoretical information from a Canadian sociologist Dorothy Smith’s sociology of institutional ethnography. Researchers using these approaches examine social problems, and explicate how these social problems are built up, and what social relations organize these problems. Several preparations are needed to practice these social researches. One of such preparations is to consider the terms (keywords) referred to in practicing social researches. The keywords of D. Smith, standpoint theory, institutional ethnography, ruling relations are selected. We will see “who is Dorothy Smith”, “what is the standpoint theory”, “institutional ethnography” ,and “what are ruling relations” as follows. These terms are sources of reference to practices of social researches based on institutional ethnography. We believe these keywords are useful as practical tools for social researches.
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.39-55, 2016-07-31

What is sexuality ? It seems that the word sexuality in Japanese cannot be counted as a Japanesevocabulary. Some Japanese dictionaries refer to sexuality as something to do with the sexual.Something means essence, consciousness, physical action, representation, impulse, orientation,interest, capacity, appeal, expression or desire and so on. But what in the world is the sexual ?According to some dictionaries, the sexual means something connected with the state of being maleor female, the state connected with sex desire, something connected with both sexes, or somethingconnected with men and women. However, what does do this “sex” mean in the first place ? Commonsense in Japanese tells us that sex is “male and female essential”, instinct, lust, or intercourse. If so,what is the difference between the concept sex and the concept sexuality in Japanese ? Is the wordsexuality an euphemism for the word sex ? It seems that the concept sexuality is unnecessary inJapanese, and the concept sex will do in Japanese. This paper investigates whether or not it is thecase.
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.31-47, 2018-07-31

This paper does not take voting against the UN resolution “36/... the death penalty” (A/HRC/36/L.6) at the 36th session of the Human Rights Council (in September 2017) as voting against the resolution condemning death penalty for homosexuality. By interpreting this resolution as the resolution of “the question of the death penalty”, this paper will examine implications for sexual orientation of the opposition of the Japanese government to this resolution through considering the Japanese government’ reasoning for casting a vote against this resolution in light of the fact that the Japanese government cast a vote against this resolution.
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.47-56, 2004-07-01

Development in the 1970s was promoted on an economic growth basis. But objections to the economic growth basis have been raised since the latter half of 1970s. Development came into question in terms of global environment problem, local residents' campaigns, quality of life, the north-south problem and so on. The relation between developing countries' development and global environment conservation is one of the most crucial issues on global problems. Development problems have focused on 'poberty' from`environment and development' through humanist `social development'. In the meantime the concept of`human development' has been used in the international organizations. `Human development' took a turn into gender equality. No doubt`women in development' approach has been promoted since 1970s. In the 1990s,`gender and development' approach was adovocated instead of`women in development', and`the mainstreaming of gender' has been tackled. This paper attempts to examine the issues on the concept of women in`gender and development' approach.
著者
椎野 信雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.69-79, 2002-02-01

On June 26, in 2000 President Clinton announced at a historic White House ceremony that the international Human Genome Project and Cellera Genomics Corporation have both completed an initial sequencing of the human genome - the genetic blueprint for human beings. On the same day, the public and private groups that sequenced the human genome announced jointly that they have completed rough drafts of the human genome. President Clinton hailed the announcement as "the most important, most wondrous map ever produced by humankind." He said, "Today, we are learning the language in which God created life. We are gaining ever more awe for the complexity, the beauty, the wonder of God's most divine and sacred gift. With this profound new knowledge, humankind is on the verge of gaining immense, new power to heal. Genome science will have a real impact on all our lives - and even more, on the lives of our children. It will revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases." The rough draft of the entire human genome is regarded as a first glimpse of the instruction book previously known only to God, and a powerful new tool to find cures for disease. On the other hand, there are worries over discrimination in education, employment, promotion, insurance contracts, marriage and so on because of gene diagnoses and gene treatments. The General Conference of UNESCO in 1997 adopted "the Universal Declaration on Human Genome and Human Rights" in order to ban such discrimination. Recently ethical problems concerning genes and the genome have been much discussed. These problems are concerned with eugenics, especially the issue of whether the new eugenics ethically allows gene enhancement. Should society be against this new eugenics or for it? This paper examines the argument about "the theory and ethics of genetic engineering society" by a philosopher of science.