- 東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
- vol.71, no.1・2, pp.115-139, 1989-12
On 17 Dhû a1-Hijja 717 A.H./20 February 1318 A.D., a man appeared at Qirtiyâwus in the Syrian province of Jabala and called himself Muhammad b a1-Hasan al-Mahdî. Three thousand of al-Nusayrîs immediately assembled around him asserting the deity of Alî b. Abî Tâlib. They proclaimed publicly the abolition of both prayer (salât) and abstinence from drink, and then attacked the Muslims of Jabala in public prayer. Among the rebels was included a youth named “Ibrâhîm b. Adham”, a popular sûfî saint who died in Jabala in the latter half of the 8th century. Received the news of their revolt, amir Shihâb al-Dîn Qirtây, governor of Tripoli, despatched 1,000 cavalries under the command of his three Mamlûk amirs. On Dhû al-Hijja/25 February they battled with al-Nusayrîs and succeeded easily in suppressing the revolt after they killed 120 rebels including al-Mahdî.According to the contemporary sources such as al-Nuwayrî’s Nihâya al-Arab and Ibn Battûta’s Rihla, the revolt was clearly against the religious policy of the Mamluk government toward al-Nusayrîs. In 1317 Sultan al-Nâsir (1293-94, 1299-1309, 1310-41) carried out the cadastral survey (rawk) in the province of Tripoli including Jabala and ordered al-Nusayrîs to construct mosque (masjid) in each village. Then he prohibited them strictly from holding the initiation called “khitâb” in which new participants are granted the secret creeds peculiar to al-Nusayrîs. Al-Maqrîzî (d. 1442) explains that they believe Alî’s deity and insist the idea of heaven and hell to be denied. The sunnî ulamâ’ in the Mamluk period regarded al-Nusayrî’s belief as infidel and estimated them inferior even to the Christians and Jews. We find its example in the fatwâ of Ibn Taymîya which was delivered at the revolt of a1-Nusayrîs in 1318.