- 東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho
- vol.48, no.1, pp.49-79, 1965-06
The present writer points out that some passages in a memorial presented to Yang-ti by Ch’i-min-qaγan in 607 bear striking similarity to the T’u-chüeh inscriptions as regards to their phraseology, and concludes that the Chinese texts are translations from the Turkic (T’u-chüeh).1) In the memorial, we read: “Among the populace of T’u-chüeh, those who did not die came together again and became the populace.” Such expression is not common in Chinese. On the other hand, in the inscriptions are found the following examples: “il ymä il boldï, budun ymä budun boldï. (The state also became the state. The populace also became the populace.)”, “ičikigmä ičikdi, budun boldï. ölügmä ölti. (Those who surrendered surrendered and became the populace. Those who died died.)”, “ïda tašda qalmïšï qubranïp yiti yüz boldï. (Those who remained at wood and stone (?) came together and made seven hundred.)”, etc. The above-cited passage in the memorial may be reflections from such a Turkic expression as: “ölügmä ölti, anda qalmïšï qubranïp budun boldï.”2, We read in the memorial: (A) “Your Majesty the Emperor,…… grasping the four directions of the whole country, took the seat (of the Emperor)”, and (B) “The Sage, the preceding Emperor,…… let me take the seat as the Great Qaγan.” In these passages, any accession to a throne is expressed by the word “坐” (to sit down, to take a seat)”. This word “坐” coincides with the Turkic word “olur- (to sit down, to take a seat)” which means “to accede to a throne”. The Turkic expression “özümin ol täŋri qaγan olurtdï ärinč (That Heaven had let me take the seat as the Qaγan)” may be prototype of the above-cited Chinese passage (B). Moreover, in the inscriptions are such expressions as “tört buluŋdaqï budunuγ qop almïš (He grasped the whole people in the four angles (directions))”, etc. We may assume this Turkic expression to be prototype of the Chinese phrase, “grasping the four directions of the whole country”.3) Ch’i-min-qaγan expresses his gratitude to Yang-ti that the preceding Emperor and Yang-ti nourished and revived (養活) himself and the populace of T’u-chüeh. In the inscriptions, the deeds of “igid-” and “tirgür-” of qaγans and tigin are highly praised. The word “tirgür-” means “to revive, to restore to life”. The word “igid-” in the inscriptions have been translated as “to raise, to elevate, to restore”. But, this word means “to nourish, to educate, to bring up, to cultivate” originally. Thus, the Turkic “igid-” and “tirgür-” coincide with the Chinese expression “nourish and revive” in the memorial.4) In the memorial is a passage saying: “When I looked up, I saw only Heaven. When I looked down, I saw only Earth.” It is not improbable that such view of the world was introduced from China. But, as is seen in the inscriptions and other Chinese sources, T’u-chüeh worshipped Heaven, Earth and Water originally. Moreover, there are such expressions in the inscriptions as follows: “üzä kök täŋri, asra yaγïz yir (the blue Heaven over (us) and the black Earth under (us))”, “üzä täŋri asra yir (Heaven over (us) and Earth under (us))”, etc. In the light of such expressions, one feels that the above-cited Chinese passage must have been composed under Turkic influence.