- 東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
- vol.78, no.1, pp.95-120, 1996-06
This paper attempts to examine the social and political situations of the Turkic Muslims, who are now called Uygur, at Kashgar in the early twentieth century and their reformist movement.After Ismail Gasprinski, the Crimean Tatar reformist, opened a model primary school at Bakhchisaray in 1884, his new-method (usul-i jaded) education had an important effect in the Muslim regions of Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and so on.Husayn and Baha’al-Din. the brothers of the Musa Bayof family, whose native place was Ustun Artush in the suburb of Kashgar, were representative millionaires in Eastern Turkistan (Sinkiang). They endeavored to introduce the new-method education, and opened schools at Ustun Artush and Gulja in 1908 at the latest. At Kashgar, the reformist ‘ulama ʻAbd al-Qadir Damulla also established a new-method school in 1912.But, the reformist movement was severely hampered by conservative ‘ulama and influential persons at Kashgar. The activities of the Turkish teacher, Ahmed Kemal, who had been sent by “the Committee of Union and Progress” and opened a new-method normal school at Ustun Artush under the assistance of the Musa Bayofs in 1914 made clear the conflicts among the Muslims. ‘Umar Bay who had rivaled the Musa Bayofs in commerce was one of the conservative leaders. He made approaches to the Chinese authorities and the Russian consul to suppress the reformists. Especially during World War I, the authorities were also fearful of the Pan-Turkic and Pan-Islamic inclination of Ahmed Kemal’s education.Though the authorities were cautious about the reformist movement, the native reformists actually never verbally nor physically oppose the Chinese rule, for, in those days, their objectives were limited to reforming the traditional Islam and enlightening the ignorant Muslims. Consequently,however, the Chinese authorities’ suppressions gave the occasion for the reformists to incline to drastic nationalism later.