- 女性学研究 (ISSN:09187901)
- vol.1, pp.1-20, 1992-03-31
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of physical education for girls and women and gender in America from late 19th century to early 20th century. For this purpose, the articles of American Physical Education Review (1896-1929) were mainly used as historical materials, and the beliefs of physical educators concerning women's body, mentality, exercise, sports and education were examined. The results of the investigation were as follows: The physical educators at that time served partially to make a new image of women by encouraging them to have vigorous out-of door exercises. They emphasized mental qualities of initiation, self-confidence and cooperation which were different from the required qualities of Victorian ideal women. But on the other hand, by putting severe restriction on high level athletics of women, the physical educators (especially women physical educators) underestimated women's abilities in athletic sports and emphasized the fixed idea on the gender concerned with athletic sports.