著者
Takeyasu ICHIKOHJI Sotaro KATSUMATA
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0151214a, (Released:2016-03-11)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1 3

Amateur creations are one source of Japan’s competitiveness in the content industry. This study summarizes prior research on amateur manga (comic), called doujinshi, in terms of its history and current status, overseas trends, gender aspects, and copyrights. This study then develops a research model with three hypotheses on the relationship between creation and monetization across multiple content categories. To test these hypotheses, an online survey of 2,593 individuals was conducted on the creation and monetization of manga and music. The survey’s findings were as follows: (1) Consumers who create works in one content category tend to do so in other categories. (2) Consumers who monetize their own work in one content category tend to do so in other categories. (3) Consumers who create works in multiple content categories tend to monetize their own works. This study also shows the current status of creation and monetization in Japanese manga and music.
著者
Kenichi Kuwashima
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0180314a, (Released:2018-06-01)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
5

From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, major institutional reform was undertaken in Japan to promote university–industry collaboration. The term “university–industry collaboration” appeared frequently in the media and became a fad. However, this did not last long, and it peaked in 2003. University–industry collaboration entered the spotlight again after 2010, when “open innovation” (Chesbrough, 2003) became popular in Japan. At that time, a new type of university–industry collaboration emerged. University–industry collaboration in Japan has traditionally taken the form of “small-scale, short-term, individual” contracts. In contrast, this new type of collaboration features “large-scale, long-term, comprehensive” contracts.
著者
Hiroki KIKUCHI
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0160605a, (Released:2016-08-09)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
2 5

The Tokaido Shinkansen began operating in 1964 and ran at globally unprecedented speeds of more than 200 kmph. Comparison with the operating speed of aircraft necessitated further improvement of the operating speed of Shinkansen. Nevertheless, there was no improvement until 20 years. During that period, the maximum speed of test cars, the highest technically feasible speed, improved. Rather than technical factors, the following social and organizational factors impeded the improvement of the operating speed. (1) The social factor was the prioritization of environmental countermeasures to improvements in speed because of the noise pollution lawsuits and noise regulation. (2) The organizational factor was the need to secure the slack time due to frequent strikes and delays when Shinkansen was managed by Japan National Railways (JNR). However, around the time of the splitting and privatization of JNR in 1987, noise regulation was relaxed and lawsuits were settled. Furthermore, the labor movement settled down with the privatization of JNR; consequently, labor unions were dismantled. These events resolved preventive factors and led to the improvement of operating speeds.
著者
Tatsuya Yoshida
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.19-32, 2021-02-15 (Released:2021-02-15)
参考文献数
11

The workcation, wherein people combine work with vacation, is a concept that originated in the United States and Europe with the spread of information and communications technology (ICT). Although it is considered a workstyle for independent people as epitomized by freelancers and the like, in Japan, the term has come to convey something different from its original meaning, taking a unique direction in which some types of training programs are referred to as workcation. How did this change come about? This study, based on surveys of three regions, examines the origin and development of satellite office workcation and learning workcation to ascertain the following. (1) In Japan, people with workcation are assumed to be employees. (2) Therefore, the workcation is heavily influenced by local governments' intentions (wanting to associate with exchange populations) and companies' intentions (it is difficult to dispatch employees to outlying areas without a work-related purpose). (3) Therefore, the workcation has evolved into something that aims to enhance creativity, learning, and introspection through close ties with communities.
著者
Tatsuya Yoshida
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0210112a, (Released:2021-02-10)
参考文献数
11

The workcation, wherein people combine work with vacation, is a concept that originated in the United States and Europe with the spread of information and communications technology (ICT). Although it is considered a workstyle for independent people as epitomized by freelancers and the like, in Japan, the term has come to convey something different from its original meaning, taking a unique direction in which some types of training programs are referred to as workcation. How did this change come about? This study, based on surveys of three regions, examines the origin and development of satellite office workcation and learning workcation to ascertain the following. (1) In Japan, people with workcation are assumed to be employees. (2) Therefore, the workcation is heavily influenced by local governments' intentions (wanting to associate with exchange populations) and companies' intentions (it is difficult to dispatch employees to outlying areas without a work-related purpose). (3) Therefore, the workcation has evolved into something that aims to enhance creativity, learning, and introspection through close ties with communities.
著者
Jing-Ming SHIU Masanori YASUMOTO
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.5, pp.239-250, 2016-10-15 (Released:2016-10-16)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
4 3

The open source community (OSC) is a place to develop collective knowledge available to anyone, thereby inevitably engendering free riders. Despite this, many firms have contributed to OSCs. This study examines 10 Android smartphone manufacturers between 2010 and 2013 with regard to their (a) source code contributions and the relation of those contributions to (b) time to market as measured by the release of their first Android smartphones. The results of the analysis are divided into the following two groups: (A) a group that released smartphones faster than their competitors through source code contributions and (B) a group that made few source code contributions and was slower to release smartphones than group (A). In addition, in a few years, some firms were observed to have move from group (B) to group (A).
著者
Wei Huang
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0180921a, (Released:2018-10-11)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
2

In existing research on new product development, it has been believed that the product development by companies needs to reflect the changes in customer needs. Particularly, for products in which continual development is a characteristic, customer needs must be addressed at multiple points in time. However, by comparing the cases of two companies from the online game industry, we found that long-term performance of a company which responded flexibly suffered a drop, with the ratio of new users dropping and the user attrition rate increasing. Therefore, we believed that too much attention was paid to the requests of lead users.
著者
Masamichi OGAMI
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.187-197, 2016-08-15 (Released:2016-08-15)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
4

This paper employs data on patent applications for the glass industry’s float process from 1954 through 2015. Furthermore, it assesses whether the S-curve of technological progress emerges. Assigning time to the horizontal axis, something like the S-curve emerges in the US and Europe but not in Japan. The S-curve represents the physical limits of technology. Specifically, Foster (1986) defined the S-curve as the function that expresses the relation between the amount of effort expended toward performance improvement and its outcome. The magnitude of the effort expended depends on the company as well as social factors. This paper performs company-level analysis using actual data to examine (1) the extent to which companies respond to the demands of the market and (2) the effect of the grant-back clauses in licensing agreements suggested by Ogami (2015).
著者
Sungwoo BYUN
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0160531a, (Released:2016-07-20)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 4

Once a company begins its development process, putting products into the market as quickly as possible to get a return on investment is the fundamental corporate activity. A product’s time to market can be categorized into the development time for the product and production processes and production ramp-up time. Existing studies have focused on reducing development time by primarily increasing efficiency. However, no matter how much a company shortens its development time, there may be a delay in the return on investment if production ramp-up takes too much time. This paper analyzes the processes of Hyundai Steel, a major Korean steel manufacturer. Moreover, it examines the process of its implementation of blast furnace technology through mass production. The company used a strategy that maximized the learning effect by implementing three blast furnaces with the same specifications in succession and without delay. They planned to implement the blast furnaces with no overlap in the implementation schedule, which enabled the same ramp-up team to start up production successively. Thus, the team was able to leverage the experience gained in ramping up one blast furnace for ramp-ups of subsequent blast furnaces. This learning effect enabled them to successfully reduce the ramp-up time linearly, as shown on a semilog graph.
著者
Mizuki KOBAYASHI
出版者
グローバルビジネスリサーチセンター・東京大学MERC
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.105-117, 2016-04-15 (Released:2016-04-15)
参考文献数
22

Dalian, China, has been noted for its software industrial agglomeration. Many studies have mentioned Silicon Valley, the archetypal high-tech industrial agglomeration, stating that companies gained the necessary resources by becoming familiar with the flexible business practices in the region. This is conventional wisdom. However, such a trend is barely found in Dalian. Much of the business of Dalian’s software industry is related to Japan, and a strong influence of Japanese multinational enterprises (MNEs) exists. Key enterprises within the industrial agglomeration adopt Japanese companies’ managerial system and then be able to gain business from their Japanese clients. In other words, even though both are high-tech industrial agglomerations, in Silicon Valley, companies were required to become familiar with local business practices to acquire resources, while in Dalian, local key enterprises were required to take on business practices of their customer MNEs to gain resources. Thus, it is not easy to make generalizations about high-tech industrial agglomeration models based on the case of Silicon Valley, which may, in fact, be a special case.
著者
Takeaki Wada
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.1-10, 2018-02-15 (Released:2018-02-15)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2

A strategy that uses the productive performance of a manufacturing site (or genba), noted as a strength of Japan’s manufacturing industry by Fujimoto (2003), might also be called a capability-based cost leadership strategy (CBCL strategy). In the 1990s, this strategy ceased to function due to environment changes, and the international competitiveness of Japan’s manufacturing industry declined. As a means of breaking through those circumstances, Fujimoto emphasized strengthening market performance and choosing a differentiation strategy for appealing to consumers based on high product quality. In the end, however, the performance of Japan’s manufacturing industry is restored after the environment changed to become favorable to a CBCL strategy such as rising labor costs in newly developing countries and a shift to a weaker yen. This suggests that many Japanese manufacturers could not shift to differentiation strategies based on enhanced competitiveness in the market, and CBCL strategies were left in place.
著者
Masayuki Hatta
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.4, pp.143-157, 2020-08-15 (Released:2020-08-15)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

Creating new products by incorporating new and original ideas derived from learning the internal mechanisms and structures of machines and other objects at hand through the process of repairing or tinkering with them is fundamental to the innovation, which is a staple of human existence. Recently, however, increasing product complexity, technical constraints, and regulations have gradually narrowed the scope of the user's ability to tinker. This aspect has given momentum to the movement to explicitly reclaim the Right to Repair and the Right to Tinker. This paper thus outlines the process that led to recognition of the importance of these rights.
著者
Ayako Aizawa
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0190725a, (Released:2019-08-09)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

An organization is said to be in an activated state if “(1) the members have a common purpose and (2) they are actively willing to contribute action to accomplish this common purpose” (Takahashi, 1992). Problem solvers that fulfill requirements (1) and (2) play an active role in an activated state. At Company A, which is discussed in this paper and was in a crisis with its performance, employees demonstrated initiative to activate the organization by pursuing Product Identity rather than corporate identity with regard to (1) above. Moreover, this activation started to expand to other companies because of its nature as Product Identity.
著者
Takeaki Wada
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0181119b, (Released:2019-02-07)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

Many small and medium-sized enterprises' managers hesitate to launch new businesses for the diversification or business change. In the case of new business launching by Yamato Industrial and Yamaguchi Kasei, decline of their existing businesses was a threat, and simultaneously, it has become an opportunity for launching new business, just as the saying “tough times bring opportunity.” In addition, the experience of launching a second business, rather than experience at startup, will motivate managers to launch businesses continuously.
著者
Atsushi Akiike Sotaro Katsumata
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0180912a, (Released:2018-10-13)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4

The word “Galapagos” has garnered attention in Japan as an explanation for the loss of global competitiveness by the Japanese economy and Japanese companies, even while the Japanese companies are competitive domestically. The term has particularly been used with mobile phones in Japan, which are known as “Galapagos ke-tai.” An analysis of newspaper articles showed that discussions on Galapagos mobile phones were primarily about technology, technology standards, and features. However, smartphones that looked like Galapagos ke-tai came to be called “Garaho” later, and the term Galapagos then took on the meaning of appearance.
著者
WonWook Song Atsushi Akiike Young Won Park
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0180813a, (Released:2018-10-10)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Prior research on customized component transactions asserts that from a manufacturer’s perspective, customization costs can be reduced by creating collaborative relationships. However, there are few researches on the supplier’s perspective. In this paper, a survey of Japanese suppliers revealed that (a) supplier performance improves when there are more proposals both from and to customers, and that (b) supplier performance deteriorates when proposals only come from the customer. In other words, in case of the top-down relationship in (b), supplier performance deteriorates, but in the bidirectional relationship in (a), supplier performance improves.
著者
Atsushi AKIIKE Shumpei IWAO
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.5, pp.231-246, 2015-10-15 (Released:2015-10-15)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
5 4

The Innovator's Dilemma (Christensen, 1997) has been cited in many studies since Christensen published it in 1997. Some of these studies have advocated that concepts such as “dynamic capability,” “ambidexterity,” and “market orientation” can be used to overcome the environmental changes caused by the innovator's dilemma. However, these studies are categorized into two general types that are not logical refutations: (a) those which merely suggest the concept without suggesting an opposing example, and (b) those which do not demonstrate that a trajectory disruption has occurred even when suggesting an example. We must demonstrate that a trajectory disruption has occurred and then suggest a case in which the environmental changes were mitigated to suggest an example of overcoming the innovator's dilemma. However, arguments exist that doubt Christensen's concept of trajectory disruption, indicating that the arguments are not facile.
著者
Atsushi AKIIKE
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.5, pp.225-236, 2013-10-15 (Released:2013-10-15)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
9 10

The Abernathy-Utterback model (A-U model) has significant impacts on innovation studies and is adopted by many scholars. Although many studies quote Abernathy and Utterback (1978), the dominant design idea was not explicitly shown in the model. Thus, the model used in Abernathy and Utterback (1978) differs from the A-U model imaged by us. The A-U models, adopted by many scholars, are actually formulated through the accumulation of the three critical works of Utterback and Abernathy (1975), Abernathy and Utterback (1978), and Abernathy (1978). The A-U models were finally completed by Abernathy (1978), becoming the A-U models that were imaged by us. However, Teece (1986) and Utterback (1994), who significantly popularized the A-U model, quoted the model in Abernathy and Utterback (1978) as a completed model. This was re-quoted, and the misconception that the A-U model was the same as the model in Abernathy and Utterback (1978) was disseminated. Abernathy and Utterback's (1978) original paper is a strange compilation that independently introduces a diagram of the A-U model even before the title page. Moreover, there is neither an explanation nor a reference to the diagram in the paper. In fact, many researches quoting these works are unaware of this fact.
著者
Ayako Aizawa
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.4, pp.171-182, 2018-08-15 (Released:2018-08-15)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

The development and diffusion of compliance activities in Japanese companies from around 2000 can be thought of as a typical example of the institutional isomorphism discussed by DiMaggio and Powell (1983), that is, isomorphism mechanisms that were at work irrespective of performance (Aizawa, 2018a). Snow Brand Milk Products had a corporate scandal in 2000, and the compliance activities it began soon after comprised institutional isomorphism. In actuality, at that time there was no extraordinary worsening of performance, though directly after the scandal in 2002, the company was beset by a worsening of performance that put the company in danger, and it waged its survival on a wide-ranging rethinking of the details of its compliance activities to make them more unique. In addition, it spun off core businesses and transferred some of its shares in order to win back trust. Companies that have confronted management crises and have survived work toward restoring trust using similar methods. In other words, even when the same company doesn’t have selection pressures, institutional isomorphism may arise, and when there are selection pressures, competitive isomorphism may arise.
著者
Youngkyo Suh
出版者
Global Business Research Center
雑誌
Annals of Business Administrative Science (ISSN:13474464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.3, pp.123-132, 2018-06-15 (Released:2018-06-15)
参考文献数
11

It has been explained in the past that multinational firms gain competitive advantage by creating a structure for the international division of labor through allocating certain activities in their value chains to advantageous locations. Actually, however, a firm's subsidiaries are exposed to business environments that differ from those of their home country; hence, an international division of labor may have resulted from an emergent strategy. The Ikegami Mold Engineering Group has production sites in Japan, Mexico, and China that manufacture and sell molds. The Mexico site differs from the others in that it repairs and overhauls molds. This business was not planned in advance but was rather built from an emergent strategy because of the business environment in Mexico: the industrial infrastructure is not suited to the manufacture of molds, the Mexican market exhibited demand for the repair and overhaul of molds, and Ikegami had built up the technological capabilities to respond to that need. Thus, a new business was born to repair and overhaul molds.