著者
Daiki OGAWA Koichi KOBAYASHI Yuh YAMASHITA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E104.A, no.2, pp.423-429, 2021-02-01 (Released:2021-02-01)
参考文献数
25

A blockchain, which is well known as one of the distributed ledgers, has attracted in many research fields. In this paper, we discuss the effectiveness and limitation of a blockchain in distributed optimization. In distributed optimization, the original problem is decomposed, and the local problems are solved by multiple agents. In this paper, ADMM (Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers) is utilized as one of the powerful methods in distributed optimization. In ADMM, an aggregator is basically required for collecting the computation result in each agent. Using blockchains, the function of an aggregator can be contained in a distributed ledger, and an aggregator may not be required. As a result, tampering from attackers can be prevented. As an application, we consider energy management systems (EMSs). By numerical experiments, the effectiveness and limitation of blockchain-based distributed optimization are clarified.
著者
Masayoshi Yamamoto Shinya Shirai Senanayake Thilak Jun Imaoka Ryosuke Ishido Yuta Okawauchi Ken Nakahara
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021GCI0001, (Released:2021-11-26)

In response to fast charging systems, Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices are of great interest of the automotive power electronics applications as the next generation of fast charging systems require high voltage batteries. For high voltage battery EVs (Electric Vehicles) over 800V, SiC power semiconductor devices are suitable for 3-phase inverters, battery chargers, and isolated DC-DC converters due to their high voltage rating and high efficiency performance. However, SiC-MOSFETs have two characteristics that interfere with high-speed switching and high efficiency performance operations for SiC MOS-FET applications in automotive power electronics systems. One characteristic is the low voltage rating of the gate-source terminal, and the other is the large internal gate-resistance of SiC MOS-FET. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a proposed hybrid gate drive circuit that could ignore the internal gate-resistance and maintain the gate-source terminal stability of the SiC-MOSFET applications. It has been found that the proposed hybrid gate drive circuit can achieve faster and lower loss switching performance than conventional gate drive circuits by using the current source gate drive characteristics. In addition, the proposed gate drive circuit can use the voltage source gate drive characteristics to protect the gate-source terminals despite the low voltage rating of the SiC MOS-FET gate-source terminals.
著者
Yoshinao ISOBE Hisabumi HATSUGAI Akira TANAKA Yutaka OIWA Takanori AMBE Akimasa OKADA Satoru KITAMURA Yamato FUKUTA Takashi KUNIFUJI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E102-A, no.2, pp.325-335, 2019-02-01

This paper presents a formal approach for generating train timetables in a mesoscopic level that is more concrete than the macroscopic level, where each station is simply expressed in a black-box, and more abstract than the microscopic level, where the infrastructure in each station-area is expressed in detail. The accuracy of generated timetable and the computational effort for the generation is a trade-off. In this paper, we design a formal mesoscopic modeling language by analyzing real railways, for example Tazawako-line as the first step of this work. Then, we define the constraint formulae for generating train timetables with the help of SMT (Satisfiability Module Theories)-Solver, and explain our tool RW-Solver that is an implementation of the constraint formulae. Finally, we demonstrate how RW-Solver with the help of SMT-Solver can be used for generating timetables in a case study of Tazawako-line.
著者
Masayoshi YAMAMOTO Shinya SHIRAI Senanayake THILAK Jun IMAOKA Ryosuke ISHIDO Yuta OKAWAUCHI Ken NAKAHARA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105.A, no.5, pp.834-843, 2022-05-01 (Released:2022-05-01)
参考文献数
51

In response to fast charging systems, Silicon Carbide (SiC) power semiconductor devices are of great interest of the automotive power electronics applications as the next generation of fast charging systems require high voltage batteries. For high voltage battery EVs (Electric Vehicles) over 800V, SiC power semiconductor devices are suitable for 3-phase inverters, battery chargers, and isolated DC-DC converters due to their high voltage rating and high efficiency performance. However, SiC-MOSFETs have two characteristics that interfere with high-speed switching and high efficiency performance operations for SiC MOS-FET applications in automotive power electronics systems. One characteristic is the low voltage rating of the gate-source terminal, and the other is the large internal gate-resistance of SiC MOS-FET. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a proposed hybrid gate drive circuit that could ignore the internal gate-resistance and maintain the gate-source terminal stability of the SiC-MOSFET applications. It has been found that the proposed hybrid gate drive circuit can achieve faster and lower loss switching performance than conventional gate drive circuits by using the current source gate drive characteristics. In addition, the proposed gate drive circuit can use the voltage source gate drive characteristics to protect the gate-source terminals despite the low voltage rating of the SiC MOS-FET gate-source terminals.
著者
Shinichi MOGAMI Yoshiki MITSUI Norihiro TAKAMUNE Daichi KITAMURA Hiroshi SARUWATARI Yu TAKAHASHI Kazunobu KONDO Hiroaki NAKAJIMA Hirokazu KAMEOKA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E102-A, no.2, pp.458-463, 2019-02-01
被引用文献数
4

In this letter, we propose a new blind source separation method, independent low-rank matrix analysis based on generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence. This method assumes a time-frequency-varying complex Poisson distribution as the source generative model, which yields convex optimization in the spectrogram estimation. The experimental evaluation confirms the proposed method's efficacy.
著者
Reiko TAKOU Hiroyuki SEGI Tohru TAKAGI Nobumasa SEIYAMA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E95-A, no.4, pp.751-759, 2012-04-01

The frequency regions and spectral features that can be used to measure the perceived similarity and continuity of voice quality are reported here. A perceptual evaluation test was conducted to assess the naturalness of spoken sentences in which either a vowel or a long vowel of the original speaker was replaced by that of another. Correlation analysis between the evaluation score and the spectral feature distance was conducted to select the spectral features that were expected to be effective in measuring the voice quality and to identify the appropriate speech segment of another speaker. The mel-frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC) and the spectral center of gravity (COG) in the low-, middle-, and high-frequency regions were selected. A perceptual paired comparison test was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of the spectral features. The results showed that the MFCC was effective for spectra across a wide range of frequency regions, the COG was effective in the low- and high-frequency regions, and the effective spectral features differed among the original speakers.
著者
Jeyoen KIM Takumi SOMA Tetsuya MANABE Aya KOJIMA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022WBP0003, (Released:2022-11-02)

This paper attempts to identify which side of the road a bicycle is currently riding on using a common camera for realizing an advanced bicycle navigation system and bicycle riding safety support system. To identify the roadway area, the proposed method performs semantic segmentation on a front camera image captured by a bicycle drive recorder or smartphone. If the roadway area extends from the center of the image to the right, the bicyclist is riding on the left side of the roadway (i.e., the correct riding position in Japan). In contrast, if the roadway area extends to the left, the bicyclist is on the right side of the roadway (i.e., the incorrect riding position in Japan). We evaluated the accuracy of the proposed method on various road widths with different traffic volumes using video captured by riding bicycles in Tsuruoka City, Yamagata Prefecture, and Saitama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. High accuracy (>80%) was achieved for any combination of the segmentation model, riding side identification method, and experimental conditions. Given these results, we believe that we have realized an effective image segmentation-based method to identify which side of the roadway a bicycle riding is on.
著者
Yuya HOSODA Arata KAWAMURA Youji IIGUNI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E103.A, no.3, pp.629-630, 2020-03-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
参考文献数
6

In this paper, we propose an image to sound mapping method. This technique treats an image as a spectrogram and maps it to a sound by taking inverse FFT of the spectrogram. Amplitude spectra of a speech signal are embedded to the spectrogram to give speech intelligibility for the mapped sound. Specifically, we hold amplitude spectra of a speech signal with strong power and embed the image brightness in other frequency bands. Holding amplitude spectra of a speech signal with strong power preserves a speech spectral envelope and improves the speech quality of the mapped sound. The amplitude spectra of the mapped sound with weak power represent the image brightness, and then the image is successfully reconstructed from the mapped sound. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves sufficient speech quality.
著者
Kensho HARA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020IMP0012, (Released:2020-12-07)

The performance of video action recognition has improved significantly in recent decades. Current recognition approaches mainly utilize convolutional neural networks to acquire video feature representations. In addition to the spatial information of video frames, temporal information such as motions and changes is important for recognizing videos. Therefore, the use of convolutions in a spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) space for representing spatiotemporal features has garnered significant attention. Herein, we introduce recent advances in 3D convolutions for video action recognition.
著者
Hironori KIYA Katsuki OHTO Hirotaka ONO
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020DMP0026, (Released:2021-02-10)

DAIHINMIN, which means Grand Pauper, is a popular playing-card game in Japan. TANHINMIN is a simplified variant of DAIHINMIN, which was proposed by Nishino in 2007 in order to investigate the mathematical properties of DAIHINMIN. In this paper, we consider a 2-player generalized TANHINMIN, where the deck size is arbitrary n. We present a linear-time algorithm that determines which player has a winning strategy after all cards are distributed to the players.
著者
Natsuki UENO Shoichi KOYAMA Hiroshi SARUWATARI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021EAP1004, (Released:2021-02-25)

We propose a useful formulation for ill-posed inverse problems in Hilbert spaces with nonlinear clipping effects. Ill-posed inverse problems are often formulated as optimization problems, and nonlinear clipping effects may cause nonconvexity or nondifferentiability of the objective functions in the case of commonly used regularized least squares. To overcome these difficulties, we present a tractable formulation in which the objective function is convex and differentiable with respect to optimization variables, on the basis of the Bregman divergence associated with the primitive function of the clipping function. By using this formulation in combination with the representer theorem, we need only to deal with a finite-dimensional, convex, and differentiable optimization problem, which can be solved by well-established algorithms. We also show two practical examples of inverse problems where our theory can be applied, estimation of band-limited signals and time-harmonic acoustic fields, and evaluate the validity of our theory by numerical simulations.
著者
Sven WOHLGEMUTH Kazuo TAKARAGI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E101-A, no.1, pp.149-156, 2018-01-01

Threats to a society and its social infrastructure are inevitable and endanger human life and welfare. Resilience is a core concept to cope with such threats in strengthening risk management. A resilient system adapts to an incident in a timely manner before it would result in a failure. This paper discusses the secondary use of personal data as a key element in such conditions and the relevant process mining in order to reduce IT risk on safety. It realizes completeness for such a proof on data breach in an acceptable manner to mitigate the usability problem of soundness for resilience. Acceptable soundness is still required and realized in our scheme for a fundamental privacy-enhancing trust infrastructure. Our proposal achieves an IT baseline protection and properly treats personal data on security as Ground Truth for deriving acceptable statements on data breach. An important role plays reliable broadcast by means of the block chain. This approaches a personal IT risk management with privacy-enhancing cryptographic mechanisms and Open Data without trust as belief in a single-point-of-failure. Instead it strengthens communities of trust.
著者
Ichiro SATOH
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E91.A, no.11, pp.3261-3268, 2008-11-01 (Released:2008-11-28)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1 8

A formal approach for specifying and reasoning about earth-friendly logistics management systems is presented. To reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from transport, we must enhance the transport efficiency of trucks, which play an essential role as carriers in modern logistics services. This paper addresses the milk-run approach. It is one of the most effective and popular solutions to this problem, but it makes it be complicated to implement in a logistics management system. We propose a language for specifying the routes of trucks and an order relation between the requirements of routes and the possible routes of trucks. The former is formulated as process calculus and the latter selects suitable trucks according to their routes.
著者
Takehiro KITAMURA Mahfuzul ISLAM Takashi HISAKADO Osami WADA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105-A, no.11, pp.1450-1457, 2022-11-01

High-speed flash ADCs are useful in high-speed applications such as communication receivers. Due to offset voltage variation in the sub-micron processes, the power consumption and the area increase significantly to suppress variation. As an alternative to suppressing the variation, we have developed a flash ADC architecture that selects the comparators based on offset voltage ranking for reference generation. Specifically, with the order statistics as a basis, our method selects the minimum number of comparators to obtain equally spaced reference values. Because the proposed ADC utilizes offset voltages as references, no resistor ladder is required. We also developed a time-domain sorting mechanism for the offset voltages to achieve on-chip comparator selection. We first perform a detailed analysis of the order statistics based selection method and then design a 4-bit ADC in a commercial 65-nm process and perform transistor-level simulation. When using 127 comparators, INLs of 20 virtual chips are in the range of -0.34LSB/+0.29LSB to -0.83LSB/+0.74LSB, and DNLs are in the range of -0.33LSB/+0.24LSB to -0.77LSB/+1.18LSB at 1-GS/s operation. Our ADC achieves the SNDR of 20.9dB at Nyquist-frequency input and the power consumption of 0.84mW.
著者
Manabu HAGIWARA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022TAP0008, (Released:2022-09-21)

This paper considers error-correction for information in array design, i.e., two-dimensional design such as QR-codes. The error model is multi deletion/substitution/erasure errors. Code construction for the errors and an application of the code are provided. The decoding technique uses an error-locator for deletion codes.
著者
Eiji YOSHIYA Tomoya NAKANISHI Tsuyoshi ISSHIKI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105-A, no.7, pp.1061-1069, 2022-07-01

In Internet of Things (IoT) applications, system-on-chip (SoCs) with embedded processors are widely used. As an embedded processor, RISC-V, which is license-free and has an extensible instruction set, is receiving attention. However, designing such embedded processors requires an enormous effort to achieve a highly efficient microarchitecture in terms of performance, power consumption, and circuit area, as well as the design verification of running complex software, including modern operating systems such as Linux. In this paper, we propose a method for directly describing the RTL structure of a pipelined RISC-V processor with cache memories, a memory management unit (MMU), and an AXI bus interface using the C++ language. This pipelined processor C++ model serves as a functional simulator of the complete RISC-V core, whereas our C2RTL framework translates the processor C++ model into a cycle-accurate RTL description in the Verilog-HDL and RTL-equivalent C model. Our processor design methodology using the C2RTL framework is unique compared to other existing methodologies because both the simulation and RTL models are derived from the same C++ source, which greatly simplifies the design verification and optimization processes. The effectiveness of our design methodology is demonstrated on a RISC-V processor that runs Linux OS on an FPGA board, achieving a significantly short simulation time of the original C++ processor model and RTL-equivalent C model in comparison to a commercial RTL simulator.
著者
Yuta IWASE Daichi KITAMURA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105-A, no.6, pp.906-913, 2022-06-01

In this study, we aim to improve the performance of audio source separation for monaural mixture signals. For monaural audio source separation, semisupervised nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) can achieve higher separation performance by employing small supervised signals. In particular, penalized SNMF (PSNMF) with orthogonality penalty is an effective method. PSNMF forces two basis matrices for target and nontarget sources to be orthogonal to each other and improves the separation accuracy. However, the conventional orthogonality penalty is based on an inner product and does not affect the estimation of the basis matrix properly because of the scale indeterminacy between the basis and activation matrices in NMF. To cope with this problem, a new PSNMF with cosine similarity between the basis matrices is proposed. The experimental comparison shows the efficacy of the proposed cosine similarity penalty in supervised audio source separation.
著者
Tetsuya MANABE Kosuke OMURA
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105-A, no.5, pp.778-786, 2022-05-01

This paper evaluates the bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning systems using the sparse-training data through the comparison experiments. The sparse-training data is extracted from the database including enough data for realizing the highly accurate and precise positioning. First, we define the sparse-training data, i.e., the data collection time and the number of smartphones, directions, beacons, and reference points, on BLE positioning systems. Next, the positioning performance evaluation experiments are conducted in two indoor environments, that is, an indoor corridor as a one-dimensionally spread environment and a hall as a twodimensionally spread environment. The algorithms for comparison are the conventional fingerprint algorithm and the hybrid algorithm (the authors already proposed, and combined the proximity algorithm and the fingerprint algorithm). Based on the results, we confirm that the hybrid algorithm performs well in many cases even when using sparse-training data. Consequently, the robustness of the hybrid algorithm, that the authors already proposed for the sparse-training data, is shown.
著者
Shiwen LIN Yawen ZHOU Weiqin ZOU Huaguo ZHANG Lin GAO Hongshu LIAO Wanchun LI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E105-A, no.4, pp.673-681, 2022-04-01

Estimating the spatial parameters of the signals by using the effective data of a single snapshot is essential in the field of reconnaissance and confrontation. Major drawback of existing algorithms is that its constructed covariance matrix has a great degree of rank loss. The performance of existing algorithms gets degraded with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, a three-parallel linear array based algorithm is proposed to achieve two-dimensional direction of arrival estimates in a single snapshot scenario. The key points of the proposed algorithm are: 1) construct three pseudo matrices with full rank and no rank loss by using the single snapshot data from the received signal model; 2) by using the rotation relation between pseudo matrices, the matched 2D-DOA is obtained with an efficient parameter matching method. Main objective of this work is on improving the angle estimation accuracy and reducing the loss of degree of freedom in single snapshot 2D-DOA estimation.
著者
Daisuke KANEMOTO Shun KATSUMATA Masao AIHARA Makoto OHKI
出版者
The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
雑誌
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences (ISSN:09168508)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.E103-A, no.12, pp.1647-1654, 2020-12-01
被引用文献数
3

This paper proposes a novel compressed sensing (CS) framework for reconstructing electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. A feature of this framework is the application of independent component analysis (ICA) to remove the interference from artifacts after undersampling in a data processing unit. Therefore, we can remove the ICA processing block from the sensing unit. In this framework, we used a random undersampling measurement matrix to suppress the Gaussian. The developed framework, in which the discrete cosine transform basis and orthogonal matching pursuit were used, was evaluated using raw EEG signals with a pseudo-model of an eye-blink artifact. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) and correlation coefficient (CC), obtained as the average of 2,000 results, were compared to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The evaluation results of the NMSE and CC showed that the proposed framework could remove the interference from the artifacts under a high compression ratio.