- The Japanese Society of Nutrition and Dietetics
- 栄養学雑誌 (ISSN:00215147)
- vol.59, no.5, pp.213-220, 2001-10-01 (Released:2010-11-26)
Lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity and hypercholesterolemia are the results of both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic factor is mainly composed of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and environmental factors include diet, exercise, drinking and smoking. The ethnic difference in the frequency of SNP may be caused by natural selection depending on the types of agricultures in human history. The resistance against starvation among Japanese is caused by many SNPs including those in beta-adrenergic receptor, uncoupling proteins, calpain 10, PPAR-gamma, leptin receptor. Hypertension of Japanese is also caused by SNP for factors retaining salt, such as angiotensinogen, aldosterone synthase and angiotensin converting enzyme. T-type SNP of angiotensinogen was needed for apes living in the tropical forest, but is predisposing hypertension in the modern society. The ethnic differences in digestion of lactase may be the result of Rabi agriculture, those in aldehyde dehydrogenase and gulonolactone dehydrogenase are caused by the tropical foods. Japanese diet is based on the Ubi agriculture of Jomon era since 10, 000 years before present (YBP), and rice growing of Yayoi era since 3, 000 YBP. However, there are strong impacts of westernization including that of Rabi agriculture after 1945. We have studied SNPs in Palau as a model of Mongoloids because of their rapid increase in diabetes by westernization. SNPs saving energy were found in PPAR-gamma, UCP3 promotor, leptin receptor etc.(Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 281, 772, 2001). We also analyzed SNPs of the patients who were educated 25-31 years ago. Despite differeces in SNPs (betaadrenergic receptor, apoE and mtDNA), the special dietary habits (four-group point method) prevented most of the lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, total analysis of mtDNA from patients of encephalomyopathy detected three new mutation points.In conclusion, the merit of traditional Japanese diet will prevent Japanese from obesity and diabetes mellitus, because of their special SNPs regulating metabolism.