- 農業史研究 (ISSN:13475614)
- vol.40, pp.3-13, 2006 (Released:2017-03-23)
The aims of this paper examine the historical character of rural community, and the changes of the communal relations of members by the rural policy in pre-war time. The prototype of rural community is "administrative village" which was formed by the shogunate state in 17 century. The village consisted of independent and modernized farmer's families, but village members had communal and medival relation with each other. This dual character of village were corresponded to the same character of the shogunate state. There were "bilateral relations" between village and state, and depended on each other. It is important that the village strongly regulated its members by self-restricted regulation of members. The home living improvement policy in 1930's aimed to rationalize farmer's traditional life style in rural community. At the same time, this policy made the traditional regulation abilities of community tight because this policy was carried out depended on it's relations in community. The economic control policy in war-time changed the class order of farmers in community and made the traditional relations loose. But this policy also carried out depended on the traditional regulation abilities in community and made it tight. Thus, the rural policy in pre-war time had dual and contrastive characters, and the regulation abilities of community were maintained and supported by rural policy.