著者
井上 ウィマラ
出版者
パーリ学仏教文化学会
雑誌
パーリ学仏教文化学 (ISSN:09148604)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.1-19, 2013-12-22 (Released:2018-09-01)

Mindfulness meditation is expounded most comprehensively and systematically in the Satipatthana sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya. After explaning how to establish mindfulness with 13 concrete objects (categorized into 4 areas of body, feelings, mind and dhammas), the sutta repeatedly mentions the formula regarding the insight that is to be attained by the practitioner. In this refrain, it introduces the triad of ajjhatta (internally), bahiddha (externally) and ajjhatta-bahiddha (internally and externally) necessary for the purpose of carrying out continuous observation. It is this triad that constitutes the main theme of this paper. Analayo's Satipatthana: The Direct Path to Realization (2003) is a thorough research work on this sutta, which includes traditional interpretation, works of modern scholarship, and teachings of present-day meditation teachers. I will, in this paper, summarize his treatment of this theme, "internal and external contemplation." It is Analayo's conclusion that the commentarial and Abhidhammic position to identify the "internal and external" with the "self and others" is the most appropriate and practical interpretation. Building on his philological work, I wish to introduce some information from the Mahavagga in the Vinaya about the reciprocal practice of taking care of each other: the duties of teachers and disciples, the five conditions of a patient who is difficult to take care of and the five conditions of the practitioner who is able to take care of a patient. These situations inevitably lead the practitioner to observe not only others but also oneself. In the Ambalatthikarahulovada sutta from the Majjhima Nikaya, Buddha admonishes Rahula to reflect on his actions as to whether they give pain to oneself, to others or to both. This perspective of "self, others and both" constitutes a counterpart to the triad of "internally, externally, and both internally and externally." The Buddha, further, taught Rahula to confess and reveal unwholesome bodily and oral actions that produce painful results for one's teachers and fellow practitioners of the holy path, while repelling and feeling ashamed of one's unwholesome mental actions. This suggests that bodily and oral actions are shared within interpersonal relationships while mental actions stay confined to oneself. Abhidhamma explains hiri to be the feeling of being ashamed of oneself, while otappa is the feeling of being ashamed toward someone on the outside. This suggests that there exists someone internalized deep in our psyche. In this regard, the Khandha Samyutta discusses the existence of various layers of consciousness, with or without the concept of "I," "me" and "mine." Taking all these into account, the framework of ajjhatta, bahiddha and ajjhattabahiddha functions as the observational perspective, in which a practitioner witnesses the process by which the concepts of "self' and "others" are formed.

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Twitter (2 users, 8 posts, 1 favorites)

"外的自己とは他者観察を通して形成される自分自身についての観念であり,他者との交流において主役を演じるタテマエや公開されている自己である。外的自己(タテマエ)と内的自己(ホンネ)の相違は,作業苦(sankhara-dukkha)として表現される実存的な苦悩をもたらす" https://t.co/Mh7ctHkrnr
"内的他者とは内在化された他者の視線や価値観である。生きる希望,となる理想化された他者であったり,主として両親の価値観が内在化されて行動を審判する超自我であったりする。心所としての愧(ottappa)に重なるところが大きい。" https://t.co/Mh7ctH2QvT
"内的自己とは,自分が感じるものである。日常意識ではそれを感じていることに気づかないことも多く,ほんとうの自己やホンネに相当する部分である。心所としての慙(hiri)に重なるところが大きい。" https://t.co/Mh7ctH2QvT
"看護における反省的実践においても自己を知ることに関して「内的自己(自分が感じる内面)」と「外的自己(外見や言語的・非言語的態度,他人の眼から見た自分)」を区別する考え方がある。愧において外部を恐れる感覚は自らの内面に内在化された他者の視線があることを示唆する" https://t.co/Mh7ctHkrnr
"看病という作業には具体的な世話という行為に加えて自己観察と他者観察が求められる。反省(reflection)という言葉には自己観察と他者観察が統合されて作業や体験自体から学んでいくことのできる姿勢が含意されている。" https://t.co/Mh7ctHkrnr
"Satipatthana Sutta(念処経・ 気づきの確立に関する教え)は仏教瞑想の根幹をなすヴィパッサナー瞑想の実践法について最も総合的に説かれた教えである。マインドフルネス瞑想はこの教えに基づいた瞑想実践の一つとしてみなされる" https://t.co/Mh7ctH2QvT
"看病においては,相手のことを観察するだけではなく,自分自身の状態を正しく知ることも重要である。現代の看護現場や看護教育において反省的実践(Reflective Practice)の重要性が説かれるようになったのはそのためであろう(https://t.co/ZK09CZAOO3 )" https://t.co/Mh7ctHkrnr

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