5 0 0 0 OA 琉球音階再考

金城 厚
The Society for Research in Asiatic Music (Toyo Ongaku Gakkai, TOG)
東洋音楽研究 (ISSN:00393851)
vol.1990, no.55, pp.91-118,L8, 1990-08-31 (Released:2010-02-25)

It is the intention of this article to review the ryukyu scale, about which various theories have been proposed to date, and to make some propositions that may serve as the basis for future research on the subject.The first point at issue is the structure of the ryukyu scale. Koizumi Fumio has interpreted the ryukyu scale (do mi fa sol si do) as being formed from two disjunct tetrachords, each of which is, in his terminology, comprised of two nuclear tones at the interval of a fourth with one infixed tone. In this interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, fa, sol and do.On the other hand, Kakinoki Goro has proposed another interpretation, according to which the melodic movement of Okinawan folksong is ruled by a tertial nucleic structure. In his interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, mi, sol, and si.The second point at issue is the question of which of the ryukyu and ritsu scales is the older. Kojima Tomiko has concluded that the ritsu scale (including the ryo scale as a variant of the ritsu) is the older because it is seen in old-fashioned myth songs in certain remote villages in the Ryukyu region. On the other hand, Koizumi insisted that the ryukyu scale was far older than the ritsu.In the present author's view, there seem to be two different kinds of ryukyu scale in Okinawan music: one is a scale based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure (do mi fa sol si do), in which the nuclear notes locate at do, fa, sol and do; and the other is a scale based on a pentachordal nucleic structure (mi fa sol si do mi), in which the nuclear notes locate at mi, sol and si.The present author has undertaken an investigation of the finalis of all pieces in the repertoire of Okinawan classical songs accompanied by the sanshin (long-necked plucked lute), whose melodies are notated in kunkunshii notation in four volumes. Within the 195 pieces investigated, there are 83 pieces (43%) whose finalis is located at the fourth, while there are 42 pieces (22%) whose finalis is located at the third, fifth, or seventh. The former are based on the tetrachordal nucleic ryukyu scale. However, in the latter the fourth is not stable enough to be thought of as a nuclear note. The present author proposes a pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale which has its tonic at the third, because through investigation it is possible to recognize that the third, fifth, and seventh function as nuclear notes, and among these the third is most frequently the finalis.It is possible to suppose that the ryo scale (do re mi sol la do) and the pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale (mi fa sol si do mi) are parallel with each other. In both cases the scale consists of the following intervals: narrow, narrow, wide, narrow, wide, in ascending order. The pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale, however, displays a little more contrast in terms of the width of its intervals.In the case of certain folksongs of Yaeyama, some of which are dealt with in this article, the pitch of notes in the melody as performed is subtly heightened or lowered, so that it is difficult to identify the scale as being ryo or pentachordal nucleic ryukyu. Therefore, the relationship between these two scales, which appear to be opposites, is, in fact, not dualistic but monistic in nature.Such a relationship is analogous to that of slendro and pelog in Javanese music. This is worthy of note for the purposes of future comparative research.The conclusions of the present author are as follows. In Okinawan music there are five scales: min' yo and ritsu, both based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Amami and Okinawa Islands; while ryo and pentachordal nucleic ryukyu, both based on a pentachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Yaeyama, Miyako and Okinawa Islands. A complex of these scales is


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@moomin5022 https://t.co/Ox95Clkfpw
"「琉球音階再考」 / 金城厚" (1990) https://t.co/08eDlo0b1F
琉球音階再考 - A review of the ryukyu scale https://t.co/9RLhyxQ6Xb
日本本土の四七抜き音階の1音と5音を半音上げると琉球音階になるなあ、と思って検索してみたらまさにそういう観点を含む論文があった。同じ曲の地域的変種がこれに沿ってる例も載っててとてもおもしろい。 https://t.co/PVCPVH7JPt

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