著者
Semra Aktürk Arzu Kaya Derya Çetintaş Gürkan Akgöl Arif Gülkesen Gül Ayden Kal Tülin Güçer
出版者
The Society of Physical Therapy Science
雑誌
Journal of Physical Therapy Science (ISSN:09155287)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.448-453, 2018 (Released:2018-03-02)
参考文献数
27

[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), ultrasound (US) and sham ESWT in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). [Subjects and Methods] Sixty MPS patients aged 18–60 years were included in the study. The patients were randomized equally into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWT for 4 session with 3 day-intervals. Group 2 received 4 sessions of sham ESWT. US was applied to Group 3 for 10 sessions. All patients were recommended an exercise program. The patients were evaluated before-post and 6 weeks after treatment. Measurements were made using pressure pain threshold (PPT), pain score (PS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients were evaluated by using SF-36 and HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scale). [Results] A significant posttreatment difference was found in VAS, PPT and SF-36 subparameters in group 1. In group 2, a significant difference was not found in any parameter. In group 3, a significant difference was detected in parameters of VAS and PPT. A significant difference was found between groups 1 and 2 as for subtitles of PPT, VAS, SF-36. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ESWT is as effective as US. ESWT and US are significantly more effective than sham ESWT.
著者
海野 敦史
出版者
公益財団法人 情報通信学会
雑誌
情報通信学会誌 (ISSN:02894513)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.37-49, 2014 (Released:2014-11-27)
参考文献数
20

憲法21条2項後段にいう「秘密」の意義及び射程については、従前の学説における議論が乏しかったが、以下のように捉えるべきであると考えられる。すなわち、当該「秘密」については、(1)通信当事者の意思に関わりなく客観的に成立する、(2)公権力及び通信管理主体という特定の主体との関係においてのみその保護が問題となる、(3)通信当事者が「通信」を行うに際して一般に有するものと客観的に認められる「信頼」に基づき発現する、という特質を有しており、通信当事者の「信頼」の向かい先にない一般私人との間では憲法上直接問題となるものではない。少なくともこの点において、「秘密」の概念は、公私双方の局面にわたり問題となり得るプライバシーの概念とは区別される。したがって、通信の秘密不可侵の保障の趣旨をもっぱらプライバシーの保護に求めることは必ずしも妥当ではない。「秘密」の保護とは、むしろ憲法上確保されるべき「通信」の制度的な利用環境の表徴として捉えられ、国民各人の「通信」の安心・安全な利用を確保する観点から、セキュリティ等のプライバシー以外の一定の要素も通信制度の中で適切に保護されることが憲法上予定されているものと解される。なお、近年一部の学説で主張されている「通信の内容の秘密」と「通信の構成要素の秘密」との憲法上の区別については、両者の不可分性等にかんがみ妥当ではなく、通信の秘密不可侵の保護領域においては両者を一体的に捉えるべきであると考えられる。
著者
島薗 進
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.103-128, 2007-03-31

In rationalizing the approval of scientific research on human embryos, comparisons to abortion are often brought up. In discussing the bioethical question concerning “life’s beginning,” we note that, since 1960 in both Europe and America, the debate surrounding the morality of abortion has been carried on with battle-like intensity. And the accumulated debate points have determined the general scheme of the public understanding of the issue. In short, the focus of that debate centers on whether or not embryos and fetuses a human life forms (life as individuated human beings) worthy of the highest level of respect.In Japan, the debate over this issue has not been very lively and, in fact, there the issue is not taken to be one with any definite significance. One reason for this is that among those supporting abortion rights in Japan there is also concern for the things being emphasized by the community of persons with disabilities. On the one hand, within anti-abortion groups in Japan, there are some who have not developed powerful oppositional movements such as those of religious organizations like the Catholic Church.Although the commandment that “one must not kill humans without just cause” is acknowledged in Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism as well as in Japanese folk culture, rhetoric explaining the foundation for this belief differs greatly from that found in the western Christian cultural sphere. In this way, a religious culture different from western Christian thought exists in Japan, and when the notion of “dignity of human life” is used in Japan, it reflects a religious culture with different nuances than those evoked in the West. With view to the difference of religious culture between the West and Japan, the author proposes to use the concept of “the dignity of coexisting 128 life” in considering the reasons that we must refrain from the use of human embryos. This was an attempt to liberate the values and spirituality that accompany the idea of “dignity of human life” from the notion of respect for the human as an individual. Presently, the fact that differences in value systems and spirituality in relation to “human dignity” have a large influence on bioethical considerations is causing apprehension. Because cultures are different, great differences in the judgment of individual problems arise, and the number of such problems that must be solved is considerable. If so, it could be said that we are coming to a point where we must seek out some understanding based on a standard shared by all of us in the human race. The value systems and notions of spirituality based in particular religious cultures confront one another and are based in diversity. We must work hard to advance the dialogue between different cultures in order to reach agreements on various issues of bioethics.
著者
Kenichi Otsuka Masayuki Tazawa Yoko Ibe Tomotaka Inoue Minori Kurosaki Kenji Shirakura Naoki Wada
出版者
北関東医学会
雑誌
北関東医学 (ISSN:13432826)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.1-5, 2018-02-01 (Released:2018-04-05)
参考文献数
18

Background: Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a major injury that occurs in elderly individuals. The aim of this study is to predict the functional outcomes of elderly female patients with acute VCF based on their nutritional status. Methods: A total of 69 female patients with acute VCF were included in the present study. The age, fracture location, body mass index, grasping power, the amount of the patient's daily nutritional intake, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and nutritional status (determined from laboratory findings) were evaluated at the time of admission. After in-hospital rehabilitation, the patients were divided into two groups based on their motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) scores at the time of discharge. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predicted the outcome. Results: The patients were divided into the high mFIM (score≥79, n=36) and the low mFIM (score<79, n=33) groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the amount of the patient's nutritional intake and the MMSE score were associated with the outcome. Conclusions: he cognitive status and the amount of the patient's nutritional intake were associated with the prognosis of elderly women with acute VCF.
著者
東島 雅昌
出版者
日本選挙学会
雑誌
選挙研究 (ISSN:09123512)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.62-76, 2015 (Released:2018-04-06)
参考文献数
35

本稿では,中央アジアのカザフスタン,キルギス,タジキスタンの選挙制度改革を概観し,選挙権威主義体制下の選挙制度がどのように変更され,選挙制度選択にはいかなる要因が寄与しているのか検討する。野党が脆弱な選挙権威主義体制下では,小選挙区制は与党に有利な議席バイアスをもたらすかわりに,統治エリートの凝集性を弱め,結果的に体制運営に支障をきたす可能性をはらむ。こうした選挙制度設計のジレンマのもと,高い支持動員能力をもつ権威主義体制の指導者は,小選挙区制下の議席プレミアムがなくても選挙に圧勝できるため,統治エリートの自律性をより効果的に抑制できる比例代表制の選択が可能になる。中央アジアの3カ国の事例は,政治指導者の支持動員力が低いときに小選挙区制に依存し,その動員力が増したときに比例代表制へと選挙制度を変更する傾向にあることを示唆している。
著者
Satoshi Katano Akiyoshi Hashimoto Katsuhiko Ohori Ayako Watanabe Remi Honma Rimi Yanase Tomoyuki Ishigo Takefumi Fujito Hirofumi Ohnishi Kazufumi Tsuchihashi Sumio Ishiai Tetsuji Miura
出版者
The Japanese Circulation Society
雑誌
Circulation Journal (ISSN:13469843)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
39

Background:Whether the short-term effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in elderly patients with heart failure (HF) is influenced by nutritional status is uncertain, so the present study investigated the effect of nutritional status on functional recovery after CR in elderly HF inpatients.Methods and Results:We enrolled 145 patients admitted for treatment of HF who were aged ≥65 years and had a low functional status defined as a Barthel index (BI) score ≤85 points at the commencement of CR. Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and total energy intake per day. The primary endpoint was functional status determined by the BI score at discharge. The median CR period was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–34 days), and 87 patients (60%) were functionally dependent (BI score ≤85) at discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MNA-SF score (odds ratio [OR]: 0.76, P=0.02) and total energy intake at the commencement of CR (OR: 0.91, P=0.02) were independent predictors of functional dependence after CR. MNA-SF score ≤7 and total energy intake ≤24.5 kcal/kg/day predicted functional dependence at discharge with moderate sensitivity and specificity.Conclusions:MNA-SF score and total energy intake at the commencement of CR are novel predictors of the extent of functional recovery of elderly HF inpatients after in-hospital CR.
著者
Shun-ichiro HIRANO Tetsuya FUJIMOTO Hiroshi INOUE Kenji UCHIHASHI Yasuo NISHIKAWA
出版者
Osaka Odontological Society
雑誌
Journal of Osaka Dental University (ISSN:04752058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.151-156, 2017-10-25 (Released:2018-01-25)
参考文献数
13

The seating location in the classroom is thought to have a close relationship to the aca­ demic performance of each student. However, as teachers taking part in higher educa­ tion, we know that "common sense" must give way to many exceptional cases. To verify the truth of this widely held belief, we recorded the students' seating locations at a den­ tal hygiene college for many years, and correlated this information with their academic performance. As the rooms in which they were taught were identical, and the seating ar­ rangements were consistent throughout the years, it allowed us to analyze the data in a single environment. Many studies have reported that although students with poor grades sit in "low interaction" seats, students with good grades do not select "high interaction"seats, but rather prefer to occupy "moderate interaction" seats. Average or middle stu­ dents tended to have no favored location. We were not able to correlate each student's academic performance with her preferred seating location, especially in the case of high performing students. However, the pre­ ferred seating location for students with poor grades tended to follow commonly ac­ cepted norms which have been described in many reports. Our findings suggest that stu­ dents who are at risk of failing could be determined by where they sit in the classroom. This helps to identify the potentially unsuccessful candidates, and permits remedial ac­ tion at an early stage. (J Osaka Dent Univ 2017; 51: 151­-156)
著者
Sato Takaki Matsuda Yasumasa
出版者
東北大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
DSSR Discussion Papers
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.1-21, 2018-03