- 認知科学 = Cognitive studies : bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society (ISSN:13417924)
- vol.7, no.3, pp.241-256, 2000-09-01
The aim of this paper is to present the structure and classification of past sequences, e.g., flashbacks, with reference to actual scenes from movies and televised movies, with a new technique for transcription. An analysis of the techniques used in the scenes revealed the following points: (1) close-ups and voice-overs are used to indicate “who remembers,” (2) reshowing the prior scenes or references to the past are used to indicate “when the event occurred,” and (3) changing the color or brightness of the screen is used to indicate “breaks” between the present and the past. The analysis reveals that many techniques, or cognitive artifacts, are employed to depict past sequences, which often result in redundancy. The notion of cognitive artifacts is discussed further, particularly with respect to their systematic aspects.