著者
工藤 彰 岡田 猛 ドミニク チェン
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.4, pp.573-590, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-06-01)
参考文献数
43

The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process ofa contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con-sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations. Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation. All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
著者
岡部 大介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.671-681, 2008 (Released:2010-04-23)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
5

This study seeks to demystify one of a niche subculture of extreme female fans and mavens known as “Fujoshi” who get really into animation, comic, novel and so on. They call themselves self-mocking term “Fujoshi” and are willing to draw⁄read fanzines that are an underground hobby focused on romantic or homosexual relationships between male characters from various media texts. In this paper, I describe how they construct their identities and social relations through narrative and practice. First I frame this work as an effort to think the differentiation between “self” and &ldquoidentity”. Then I show the core characteristic of “Fujoshi” groups is the issue of hiding identity. The assumption has been in subcultural studies that the embodied external identity display in the face of mainstream culture is foundational. But “Fujoshi” culture does it differently. Although they make their identities invisible in everyday lives, that hiding practice paradoxically makes their identities visible in “Fujoshi” community. The other area that I found interesting was their ironical communication. Because they believe that “Fujoshi” activities are considered to be inferior to the &ldquonormal” females, they express their identities self-deprecatingly. I think this practice is a defensive communication against prejudice and is also a strategy to present their identities paradoxically.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-<br>ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,<br>easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the "pro-<br>nouncability" was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-<br>nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated the<br>name-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-established<br>pronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequency<br>of the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent morae<br>share the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score of<br>mora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impression<br>of names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-<br>fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotactic<br>frequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being rated<br>negatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciation<br>effect in the previous study.
著者
岡 耕平
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.45-61, 2014-03-01 (Released:2015-02-02)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

Some people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) can hardly express their own thoughts in language. Sometimes, they have been considered as a communication disorder. However, since the word “communication” is usually defied as an interaction between at least two persons, it is doubtful to attribute problems happened within a particular communication to one side. In this study, I collected text data from a mi-croblog of one person who has been diagnosed as PDD and having difficulty to express her own thoughts in language, in order to investigate how the microblog had changed the way of communications. The results of the text data analysis showed that the par-ticipant expressed what she wanted to say by referring and utilizing remarks of others. The possibility and implications of removing the difficulties from their communication through the process of “curation” was discussed.
著者
戸梶 亜紀彦
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.4, pp.360-368, 2001-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
9 10

This study deals with just a emotion of emotions. When we see good movies or wonderful landscapes, read heart-warming stories, our hearts are frequently moved. This phenomenon evokes fairly certain emotions. However, it has hardly been studied in psychology. Many researches by the author were reviewed in order to investigate and elucidate mechanisms of evoking emotional responses of “Kandoh (the state of being emotionally moved)”. On the basis of these researches, first, the various types of “Kandoh” are categorized, and secondly a comprehensive process model is proposed. The outlines of this model are as follows. It is suggested that event related knowledge and information are very important factors for an audience (that is spectators, listeners, viewers, readers, and so on) to become highly involved, and then high involvement states elicit psychological and physiological stress. Therefore, desirable developments of a story produce stress reduction or relaxation, and finally people evoke “Kandoh”. Based on these results, some characteristic aspects of our cognitive system and some significance of emotional responses of “Kandoh” are discussed.
著者
高橋 康介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.404-406, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
著者
丸山 善宏
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.496-503, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)

Category theory was born within developments of algebraic topology in the midtwentieth century, and soon thereafter endorsed as the avant-garde, structural foundation of mathematics that liberates her from material set theory (or its ‘pernicious idioms’ as Wittgenstein calls them). Today it serves as a transdisciplinary foundation of the sciences, including, inter alia, physical, computational, and some social sciences. Despite the striking success in AI and NLP, applications to the life and cognitive sciences have been limited for various reasons. Here we present a critical perspective on an allegedly categorical theory of consciousness, yet another case of ‘fashionable nonsense’or a ‘new kind of science’, and in doing so, we elucidate what it consists in to define consciousness and alleged categories of it. We conclude with the moral of the discussion drawn in light of the epistemology of interdisciplinary studies whilst repurposing the Sokal/co-Sokal affair for a healthier ecology of discourse transgressing the boundaries.

24 0 0 0 OA 錯視と圏論

著者
高橋 康介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.482-486, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
参考文献数
4

Tsuchiya & Saigo (2019) proposed the idea that the category theory is the powerful tool for scientific approach towards the mystery of consciousness. Perception, illusion,and consciousness are closely related, and so they also analyzed how to understand the phenomena in some types of visual illusion in terms of the category theory. In this commentary, I discuss about some perceptual phenomena and their theories, such as visual illusion, perceptual constancy, bistable figures, and ill-posed problem of perception, and the limitation of the current theory. Although the power of category theory in the cognitive science is still unclear, I also discuss the potential of category theory to understand illusion and perception from different viewpoint than the existing theories.
著者
鳴海 拓志
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.14-29, 2019-03-01 (Released:2019-09-01)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
1

This paper proposes a novel field of technology, “Ghost Engineering”, for enabling us to change our cognitive functions as we hope by modifying our body perception and recognition. Recent embodied cognition studies revealed that our mind can be influenced by the states and recognition of our bodies. Meanwhile, recent development in virtual reality and augmented human technologies enable us to flexibly modify/extend our body itself and recognition of our bodily states. Considering these together, our mind would be designed by utilizing these novel techniques which provide augmented body. In this paper, function of human mind is called as “Ghost” after the concept of “Ghost in the machine” by G. Ryle, and recent achievement, possibilities, tentative limitations, and future implication of Ghost Engineering technologies are introduced based on three categories: Body transformation for modifying our emotion, creativity and empathy; Body multiplexing/unification for enhancing our social abilities; and Body motion modification for enhancing our physical performance via mental support.
著者
大北 碧 二瓶 正登 西山 慶太 澤 幸祐
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.392-410, 2018-12-01 (Released:2019-06-01)
参考文献数
37

Since horses (Equus caballus) domesticated 5500 years ago, humans and horses have built a closed relationship.“Jinba Ittai”expresses this relationship, and it means “a feeling as if hearts of a human and a horse are united”. What kind of a sense is a “Jinba Ittai”actually, when a human is in contact with a horse? What kind of processes occur the sense of “Jinba Ittai”? In present study, we examined “Jinba Ittai”which persons with experience of equestrian in training of horses for using interviews for them. In addition, we used M-GTA, which is the one of the qualitative analysis and focuses on the processes until a subjective sense occurs. The results showed that “Jinba Ittai”is a sense of operation agency (“It seems like the horse has become my limbs”) and a sense of smooth interaction (“We understand each other very well”). Additionally,we revealed that when a horse responds to instructions of a human immediately (i.e.,improved operation sense), the human feel “Jinba Ittai”. These results suggested that when the responses of other agent (such as horses) are produced immediately after the own responses, humans feel “Jinba Ittai”with the sense of smooth interaction.
著者
久保(川合) 南海子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.40-51, 2019-03-01 (Released:2019-09-01)
参考文献数
44

Humans have repeatedly reproduced original stories by interpreting them via new works of art (novels and paintings) through the ages. The motivation behind such reproductions seem to be related to “misprojection” and “fictional projection”. According to Suzuki (2016), who used the term “projection science,” misprojection refers to situations in which internal representations of the real world are projected onto a wrong target, like in a ventriloquism effect, whereas fictional projection refers to situations in which internal representations are projected onto something in the real world despite the absence of actual visual input (e.g., ghost). Women who create fan fiction in which an existing story of friendship or rivalry between two men is changed into a love story between men, and who prefer love stories about homosexual men (referred to in Japanese as “Fujoshi”) are considered to be converting the original work into a reproduction through misprojection and fictional projection. We discuss the similarities between fan fictions by Fujoshi and academic activities, because both fan fictions and scientific hypotheses describe things that do not exist in reality, yet are shared by many people if they are convincing enough. Products of misprojection and fictional projection shared by the community are overwritten and more refined. Previous literatures on “projection science” have focused on each individual, and barely address the dynamics of sharing and the propagation of new works reproduced through misprojection and fictional projection. This review paper analyzes the sharing of misprojection and fictional projection common to art, religion, and academic activities, and proposes that the sharing of those projections is an important function related to various human cognitive activities.
著者
土谷 尚嗣 西郷 甲矢人
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.462-477, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

One of the biggest mysteries in current science is how subjective experience, or consciousness, arises from objective substance and its physical interactions, such as human brains. Since 1990s, empirical and scientific studies on the relationship between consciousness and brain have advanced massively, especially thanks to neuroscientific approaches. Despite its empirical progress, there remains skeptical philosophers, cognitive scientists, and psychologists, who consider the science of consciousness is impossible,partly because the concept of consciousness is so difficult to define. Due to this difficulty, they argue, scholars who claim that they are empirically researching consciousness even do not know what they themselves are talking about. These skeptics hold that scientific methods cannot be applied to concepts that are not possible to define. In this article, we argue that consciousness is possible to rigorously define in a strict mathematical sense. To build this logic, we introduce category theory, which is a theory developed in mathematics in the latter half of the 20th century. Category theory is a framework originally invented to deal with relationships among objects, in particular between algebra and geometry. In recent years, category theory has been recognized for its potential to be applied to consciousness research. Throughout this paper, we propose several concrete examples of Consciousness Category and, eventually, we conclude that we can apply “Yoneda’s lemma” to Consciousness Category. Yoneda’s lemma, one of the most fundamental and powerful tools in category theory, says, in simple terms,that definitions of any concept is the same as descriptions of all relationships between the concept and the others. This striking viewpoint, which is founded mathematically,provides the validity to the act of defining consciousness through descriptions of relationships. We end with a future perspective; enriching Consciousness Category will provide a common language among researchers who disagree in some aspects of their respective definitions of consciousness. Common language is a necessary component for the big breakthrough to solve the mystery of consciousness.
著者
岡ノ谷 一夫
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.1-2, 2012 (Released:2013-12-27)
被引用文献数
1
著者
植田 一博 丹羽 清
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.4, pp.4_102-4_118, 1996-11-30 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
9

As the proverb “two heads are better than one” says, people often expect that collaborative activities bring about emergence of knowledge or ideas. In order to confirm whether there is actually the possibility of emergence through collaboration, the authors investigated actual collaborative activities in research & development processes based on the hierarchical interview method. First, a case study of developing a new impactful detergent was made in detail. As a result, three kinds of collaboration (interdepartmental collaboration, interdisciplinary one between two teams, and interdisciplinary one between two individual members) were observed. Especially, an interdepartmental collaboration was clarified to be significant in the case. Second, some cases of collaboration which were brought about in a relatively short time span were analyzed and, as a result, collaborative interactions in organizational knowledge creation were classified into three types. This study indicates that new ideas or knowledge can be emerged through collaboration in actual research & development processes.
著者
植田 一博 鷲田 祐一 有田 曉生 清水 剛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.3, pp.611-634, 2010 (Released:2011-03-08)
参考文献数
22

Previous studies suggest, contrary to our naive understanding that ideas for innovation are generated by supply-side such as product developers, that the ideas can be actually generated by consumers, especially the users called “early adopters” who keep some distance from product developers in product adoption and knowledge. This research tested, through two experiments for idea generation, which was more important to idea generation for innovation; information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, or individual cognitive feature, i.e. innovator or early adopter. One experiment was conducted with general consumers, taking as an example idea generation for new products and services related to information technology, and the other was done with R&D members in a real company. The results suggest that information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, was important to generation of creative ideas for innovation and, at the same time, that it was early adopters rather than innovators who could make effective use of the information in the idea generation: This is considered to call for a rethink of “sticky information hypothesis” by von Hippel (1994), which claims the dominant role of information in innovation. This research also suggests, through an additional experiment for information retrieval, that tendencies of innovators to avoid communication with people other than innovators and to think much of function and spec that a product has may degrade their performance in creative idea generation.
著者
平石 界
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.4, pp.341-356, 2000-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
2

Darwinian natural selection theory has large importance in biology. It has been producing many sub-theories on evolution of animal behavior. Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology that employs the evolutionary sub-theories to construct hypotheses on the design of human mind; one of the most interesting biological phenomena. Following an introduction of the natural selection theory, this paper describes some empirical studies on cognitive psychology that have been undertaken with the evolutionary psychological approach. Specifically we will observe the application of a) a theory of social behavior to the study of reasoning, b) a theory of foraging behavior to the study of decision making, and c) sexual selection theory to the study of cognitive sex differences. This paper also presents arguments on domain specificity and innateness of human mind; an important topic that often follows evolutionary psychology. Criticisms on evolutionary psychology will be discussed as well.
著者
山本 淳一 楠本 千枝子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.4, pp.621-639, 2007 (Released:2009-04-24)
参考文献数
98
被引用文献数
5

Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed by deficits in social interaction and linguistic skills, and restricted interests and stereotypic pattern of behavior. They have difficulties in motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic functions. In the present article, we proposed the comprehensive view point for understanding children with ASD; Relationships between various psychological functions, interaction between individual and environment, developmental mechanisms and developmental change by the appropriate intervention. We first described the profiles of ASD, prevalence, diagnostic criteria and resent assessment measures with the possibilities for very earlier screening in one year. Recent advancement of early intervention studies and the guideline for the application showed that early intensive treatment, pivotal behavior treatment, structured environment and parent-support program were effective for promoting the development of children with ASD. The developmental mechanism and treatment curriculum were analyzed in positive social interaction, joint attention, imitation, auditory comprehension, vocal production, verbal behavior and conversation. Children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome have deficits in understanding ambiguous context, higher-ordered linguistic rules, social interaction and other's “mind”. We reviewed the treatment studies for these difficulties and found that the effective treatment included the “visualized” procedures, because children with ASD have “strength” in visual thinking. Video modeling and in-vivo role playing were effective for generalizing the acquired social skills to everyday life situation. We, as scientist ⁄ practitioner, discussed the future direction of evidence-based studies for developing children with ASD.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.426-436, 2015-09-01 (Released:2016-03-01)
参考文献数
33

This study investigated the effect of moral foundation and feeling of disgust toward acriminal case on non-professional legal decisions. Three hundred and sixty participantswere asked to read a fictional story about a murder attempt case and rated a possi-bility that a defendant, who had denied all charges against the case, would be judgedas guilty. Participants were also rated a degree of regrets about their decision if thetruth would be either guilty or not guilty. The degree of physical injury of a victim wasvaried in accordance with three conditions (i.e., minor, heavy, and permanent damage).The analysis revealed that participants who put much value on not harming others feltdisgust toward the criminal case, and that resulted in higher ratings of possibility thatthe defendant would be judged as guilty. In addition to that, as the degree of physi-cal injury of the victim got severer, the ratings of the possibility also got higher, andparticipants felt less regrets of their decision even if the defendant was actually nota real perpetrator and thus they made Type II error. We discussed characteristics ofnon-professional legal decisions from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
著者
岡 耕平
出版者
Japanese Cognitive Science Society
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.45-61, 2014

Some people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) can hardly express their<br> own thoughts in language. Sometimes, they have been considered as a communication<br> disorder. However, since the word "communication" is usually defied as an interaction<br> between at least two persons, it is doubtful to attribute problems happened within a<br> particular communication to one side. In this study, I collected text data from a mi-<br>croblog of one person who has been diagnosed as PDD and having difficulty to express<br> her own thoughts in language, in order to investigate how the microblog had changed<br> the way of communications. The results of the text data analysis showed that the par-<br>ticipant expressed what she wanted to say by referring and utilizing remarks of others.<br> The possibility and implications of removing the difficulties from their communication<br> through the process of "curation" was discussed.