著者
工藤 彰 岡田 猛 ドミニク チェン
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.4, pp.573-590, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-06-01)
参考文献数
43

The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process ofa contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con-sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations. Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation. All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
著者
岡部 大介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.671-681, 2008 (Released:2010-04-23)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
3

This study seeks to demystify one of a niche subculture of extreme female fans and mavens known as “Fujoshi” who get really into animation, comic, novel and so on. They call themselves self-mocking term “Fujoshi” and are willing to draw⁄read fanzines that are an underground hobby focused on romantic or homosexual relationships between male characters from various media texts. In this paper, I describe how they construct their identities and social relations through narrative and practice. First I frame this work as an effort to think the differentiation between “self” and &ldquoidentity”. Then I show the core characteristic of “Fujoshi” groups is the issue of hiding identity. The assumption has been in subcultural studies that the embodied external identity display in the face of mainstream culture is foundational. But “Fujoshi” culture does it differently. Although they make their identities invisible in everyday lives, that hiding practice paradoxically makes their identities visible in “Fujoshi” community. The other area that I found interesting was their ironical communication. Because they believe that “Fujoshi” activities are considered to be inferior to the &ldquonormal” females, they express their identities self-deprecatingly. I think this practice is a defensive communication against prejudice and is also a strategy to present their identities paradoxically.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-<br>ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,<br>easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the "pro-<br>nouncability" was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-<br>nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated the<br>name-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-established<br>pronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequency<br>of the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent morae<br>share the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score of<br>mora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impression<br>of names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-<br>fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotactic<br>frequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being rated<br>negatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciation<br>effect in the previous study.
著者
岡 耕平
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.45-61, 2014-03-01 (Released:2015-02-02)
参考文献数
21

Some people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) can hardly express their own thoughts in language. Sometimes, they have been considered as a communication disorder. However, since the word “communication” is usually defied as an interaction between at least two persons, it is doubtful to attribute problems happened within a particular communication to one side. In this study, I collected text data from a mi-croblog of one person who has been diagnosed as PDD and having difficulty to express her own thoughts in language, in order to investigate how the microblog had changed the way of communications. The results of the text data analysis showed that the par-ticipant expressed what she wanted to say by referring and utilizing remarks of others. The possibility and implications of removing the difficulties from their communication through the process of “curation” was discussed.
著者
戸梶 亜紀彦
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.4, pp.360-368, 2001-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
8 10

This study deals with just a emotion of emotions. When we see good movies or wonderful landscapes, read heart-warming stories, our hearts are frequently moved. This phenomenon evokes fairly certain emotions. However, it has hardly been studied in psychology. Many researches by the author were reviewed in order to investigate and elucidate mechanisms of evoking emotional responses of “Kandoh (the state of being emotionally moved)”. On the basis of these researches, first, the various types of “Kandoh” are categorized, and secondly a comprehensive process model is proposed. The outlines of this model are as follows. It is suggested that event related knowledge and information are very important factors for an audience (that is spectators, listeners, viewers, readers, and so on) to become highly involved, and then high involvement states elicit psychological and physiological stress. Therefore, desirable developments of a story produce stress reduction or relaxation, and finally people evoke “Kandoh”. Based on these results, some characteristic aspects of our cognitive system and some significance of emotional responses of “Kandoh” are discussed.
著者
植田 一博 丹羽 清
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.4, pp.4_102-4_118, 1996-11-30 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
9

As the proverb “two heads are better than one” says, people often expect that collaborative activities bring about emergence of knowledge or ideas. In order to confirm whether there is actually the possibility of emergence through collaboration, the authors investigated actual collaborative activities in research & development processes based on the hierarchical interview method. First, a case study of developing a new impactful detergent was made in detail. As a result, three kinds of collaboration (interdepartmental collaboration, interdisciplinary one between two teams, and interdisciplinary one between two individual members) were observed. Especially, an interdepartmental collaboration was clarified to be significant in the case. Second, some cases of collaboration which were brought about in a relatively short time span were analyzed and, as a result, collaborative interactions in organizational knowledge creation were classified into three types. This study indicates that new ideas or knowledge can be emerged through collaboration in actual research & development processes.
著者
植田 一博 鷲田 祐一 有田 曉生 清水 剛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.3, pp.611-634, 2010 (Released:2011-03-08)
参考文献数
22

Previous studies suggest, contrary to our naive understanding that ideas for innovation are generated by supply-side such as product developers, that the ideas can be actually generated by consumers, especially the users called “early adopters” who keep some distance from product developers in product adoption and knowledge. This research tested, through two experiments for idea generation, which was more important to idea generation for innovation; information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, or individual cognitive feature, i.e. innovator or early adopter. One experiment was conducted with general consumers, taking as an example idea generation for new products and services related to information technology, and the other was done with R&D members in a real company. The results suggest that information, i.e. preceding ideas about new usage of a product, was important to generation of creative ideas for innovation and, at the same time, that it was early adopters rather than innovators who could make effective use of the information in the idea generation: This is considered to call for a rethink of “sticky information hypothesis” by von Hippel (1994), which claims the dominant role of information in innovation. This research also suggests, through an additional experiment for information retrieval, that tendencies of innovators to avoid communication with people other than innovators and to think much of function and spec that a product has may degrade their performance in creative idea generation.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.426-436, 2015-09-01 (Released:2016-03-01)
参考文献数
33

This study investigated the effect of moral foundation and feeling of disgust toward acriminal case on non-professional legal decisions. Three hundred and sixty participantswere asked to read a fictional story about a murder attempt case and rated a possi-bility that a defendant, who had denied all charges against the case, would be judgedas guilty. Participants were also rated a degree of regrets about their decision if thetruth would be either guilty or not guilty. The degree of physical injury of a victim wasvaried in accordance with three conditions (i.e., minor, heavy, and permanent damage).The analysis revealed that participants who put much value on not harming others feltdisgust toward the criminal case, and that resulted in higher ratings of possibility thatthe defendant would be judged as guilty. In addition to that, as the degree of physi-cal injury of the victim got severer, the ratings of the possibility also got higher, andparticipants felt less regrets of their decision even if the defendant was actually nota real perpetrator and thus they made Type II error. We discussed characteristics ofnon-professional legal decisions from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
著者
岡ノ谷 一夫
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.1-2, 2012 (Released:2013-12-27)
被引用文献数
1
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015-09-01 (Released:2016-03-01)
参考文献数
27

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the “pro-nouncability” was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated thename-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-establishedpronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequencyof the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent moraeshare the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score ofmora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impressionof names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotacticfrequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being ratednegatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciationeffect in the previous study.
著者
山本 淳一 楠本 千枝子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.4, pp.621-639, 2007 (Released:2009-04-24)
参考文献数
98
被引用文献数
4

Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed by deficits in social interaction and linguistic skills, and restricted interests and stereotypic pattern of behavior. They have difficulties in motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic functions. In the present article, we proposed the comprehensive view point for understanding children with ASD; Relationships between various psychological functions, interaction between individual and environment, developmental mechanisms and developmental change by the appropriate intervention. We first described the profiles of ASD, prevalence, diagnostic criteria and resent assessment measures with the possibilities for very earlier screening in one year. Recent advancement of early intervention studies and the guideline for the application showed that early intensive treatment, pivotal behavior treatment, structured environment and parent-support program were effective for promoting the development of children with ASD. The developmental mechanism and treatment curriculum were analyzed in positive social interaction, joint attention, imitation, auditory comprehension, vocal production, verbal behavior and conversation. Children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome have deficits in understanding ambiguous context, higher-ordered linguistic rules, social interaction and other's “mind”. We reviewed the treatment studies for these difficulties and found that the effective treatment included the “visualized” procedures, because children with ASD have “strength” in visual thinking. Video modeling and in-vivo role playing were effective for generalizing the acquired social skills to everyday life situation. We, as scientist ⁄ practitioner, discussed the future direction of evidence-based studies for developing children with ASD.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.213-219, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-12-01)
参考文献数
14

This study investigated false alarm effects against interacting with a person who had been indicted in an attempted murder case. Two hundred and forty participants were asked to read a fictional story about such a case. The degree of physical injury of the victim (i.e., minor or permanent damage) and the subsequent truth (i.e., the person was guilty or not) were manipulated. After reading the scenario, the participants were asked to rate their desire to avoid the indicted person and to estimate the risks of either gazing at him or having a conversation. Consistent with Error Management Theory (EMT), the strongest false alarm effect was obtained against having a conversation with a person who was actually guilty as well as when the physical injury of the victim was more severe. We also confirmed false alarm effects in some conditions where the indicted person was not guilty. These results indicate that the general tendency to avoid a person who possibly threatens one ’s safety, as suggested by EMT, could be applicable to situations of interaction with the former accused in a criminal case.
著者
柴崎 全弘 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.158-172, 2011 (Released:2011-09-07)
参考文献数
47

We investigated to what extent humans are sensitive to snakes and spiders in a visual search task. In Experiment 1, fear-relevant deviants (snakes or spiders) were detected faster among fear-irrelevant backgrounds (flowers or mushrooms), than vice versa. Moreover, the detection of the fear-irrelevant target from snake backgrounds was significantly slower than that from spider backgrounds. It indicated that snakes held the attention more strongly than spiders did, that interfered with the effective visual search. In Experiment 2, fear-relevant animals (snakes or spiders) were compared with fear-irrelevant animals (birds or koalas). Fear-relevant animals were detected faster among fear-irrelevant animals, than vice versa. In addition, snakes were detected more rapidly than spiders, suggesting that snakes captured attention more strongly than spiders did. Furthermore, detection of the fear-irrelevant target (birds or koalas) from snake backgrounds was significantly slower than that from spider backgrounds. Again, it was indicated that snakes held the attention more strongly than spiders. We discussed our differences of the sensitivity to snakes and spiders in terms of evolutional origins of detecting hazardous animals.
著者
平石 界
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.4, pp.341-356, 2000-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
2

Darwinian natural selection theory has large importance in biology. It has been producing many sub-theories on evolution of animal behavior. Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology that employs the evolutionary sub-theories to construct hypotheses on the design of human mind; one of the most interesting biological phenomena. Following an introduction of the natural selection theory, this paper describes some empirical studies on cognitive psychology that have been undertaken with the evolutionary psychological approach. Specifically we will observe the application of a) a theory of social behavior to the study of reasoning, b) a theory of foraging behavior to the study of decision making, and c) sexual selection theory to the study of cognitive sex differences. This paper also presents arguments on domain specificity and innateness of human mind; an important topic that often follows evolutionary psychology. Criticisms on evolutionary psychology will be discussed as well.
著者
高橋 麻衣子 巌淵 守 河野 俊寛 中邑 賢龍
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.521-533, 2011 (Released:2012-03-09)
参考文献数
35

There are some children with reading difficulties in the regular class. They seem to have some problems in their perceptual or cognitive skills involved with reading process. In this study, we developed the multi-media learning support system “Touch & Read” for assisting their reading process. The system can zoom up the text, highlight the line in it, and read out it to present the information auditorily. Introducing this system to the regular class, we investigated the way of the learning support for the children with reading difficulties. Ahead of the introduction, we conducted the test to survey the children's decoding skills and visuoperceptual functions and identified the causes of reading difficulties. We provided the Touch & Read to children for their learning in the regular class, and observed how the children with reading difficulties used the system. As a result, it was suggested that children could use the system to compensate their perceptual or cognitive skills and achieve more efficient learning outcomes.
著者
横地 早和子 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.437-454, 2007 (Released:2009-04-24)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
8 5

This study investigated the creative expertise of artists who had been making art for many years. In an initial study, we interviewed four artists at different stages of their careers about their previous artworks to investigate how they made them and how they changed in the course of their making. We asked, for instance, about their concept of each artwork, when and how a new series of artworks emerged, and so on. It was revealed that experienced artists formed their artistic vision (i.e., their long-term intention or main theme related to making art) after changing series of artwork several times, and then created artworks based on it. On the other hand, younger artists did not recognize their artistic vision yet, making artworks based on their temporary interests. In a second study, nine professional artists with more than 10 years of experience were interviewed about their whole body of artworks to identify how they became creative experts and how their artistic vision was formed. As a result, it appeared that there are three periods in creative expertise: the first is “being constrained to external criteria”; the second is “forming their own internal criteria”; and the third is “generating harmonious creations with the artistic vision.” In sum, when the artists were young, they made artworks based on external criteria. Later on, they recognized the limitations of this approach, and started to focus on internal criteria. Finally, on average about 13 years after beginning their artistic careers and creating several series of artworks, artists formed a personal artistic vision. At that point they were confidently able to make original artworks.
著者
仲嶺 真
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.300-313, 2017-09-01 (Released:2018-03-01)
参考文献数
29

The purpose of this study was to examine what information women search about and the information searching process that takes place when they are approached by a male stranger on the street. A total of 82 female Japanese undergraduates performed an information-monitoring task. In this task, participants were shown six scenarios,information list, and response list on the computer display. Each scenario described a situation in which a woman is approached by a male stranger on the street. After presenting the scenario, participants were asked to imagine the situation and recall the response list to decide whether they would talk to the male stranger or not. If participants would need more information before deciding, they could utilize the information list. After participants recalled the response list, participants were also asked how they would feel if they experience the situation in real life. This procedure was done in each of the six scenarios. Results showed that women searched for important information for high social uncertainty at an early stage of the information searching process and for other information at the last stage of the process. However, results suggested that the information searching process only took place when participants did not feel any positive emotions. The details of women ’s information searching process and the relationship between the process and emotions were also discussed.
著者
高野 陽太郎
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.115-124, 1999-03-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1
著者
松浦 李恵 岡部 大介 大石 紗織
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.268-281, 2015-06-01 (Released:2015-12-01)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1

This paper analyzes the relationship between participation and learning represented in ethnographic case studies of ten informants aged 23-59 participating in a common-based peer production site, the FabLab Kamakura community. Digital-based personal fabrication is a new wave culture of mavens, who are devoted to alternatives to massproduction, and are on a mission “to make (almost) anything”. FabLab Kamakura is a valuable venue for exchanging information about, for example, digital tools, Arduino,crafts, textiles, and so on. First we frame this work as an effort to think about their participation and learning using the concept of “wildfire activity theory”(Engeström,2009) and “legitimate peripheral participation (LPP)”from Lave and Wenger (1991). Then we argue an overview of FabLab culture in Japan and at FabLab Kamakura. Us-ing SCAT methodology (Otani, 2011), we group our findings in two different categories:(1) learning through participation in FabLab Kamakura, (2) the visualization of weakties and mobility through participation in wildfire activities. We conclude that partic-ipants at FabLab Kamakura are producing and designing available artifacts for their lives and works, and in doing so, what they are designing is the physical manifestation of their very thoughts.