- 人文論集 (ISSN:02872013)
- vol.55, no.2, pp.1-41, 2005-01-31
Hayashi Shihei, Takayama Hikokuro and Gamo Kunpei were called the Three Eccentrics (Sankijin) of the Kansei era. They did not work under the feudal lord (daimyo), but, by wondering various places, deepened the thought of the ieal political system of Japan. Many people, spesially scholars of the Mito domein (now part of Ibaraki Prefecture), were influenced profoundly by them. Consequently, the Three Eccentrics of the Kansei era became precursors of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate. Hayashi who was a samurai of Sendai domein (now part of Miyagi Prefecture), went a several times to Edo to study, and contacted with scholars of Western learning. Later, making three trips to Nagasaki, he became convinced of the need to strengthen national defenses and immersed himself in the study of the geography and military science. Takayama who was born in Kozuke Province (now Gumma Prefecture), the son of a wealthy farmar, went to Edo to study and made several trips to the imperial capital of Kyoto to visit the residences of court nobles and royal personages and to persusade the legitemacy of the emperor's authority. Gamo who was born into a merchant family in the castle town of Utsunomiya (now in Tochigi Prefecture), visited frequently to the Mito domain (now part of Ibaraki Prefecture) and associated with members of the Mito school. These visits further inspired his interest in the true relations between sovereign and subject (taigi meiburi). He toured the country inspecting imperial tombs and found many of them in disrepair. First, this paper surveies activities of the Three Eccentrics of the Kansei era. Second, the historical role of their wonderings is discussed, concerning with the Meiji Restoratoin. Finally, their opinions for the education are considered.