- 佛教大学総合研究所紀要 (ISSN:13405942)
- vol.6, pp.23-42, 1999-03-25
The period between the signing of Japan-America Washin (和親) agreement in 1854 and the commercial treaties in 1858 has been generally considered the age in which Western European countries opened Japan, and the Zyoui (攘夷) movement that become widspread in 1862-1863 was believed to be a conser- vative reaction to the foreign threat. The aim of this paper is to counter the above opinions and to interpret what the words, Washin (和親) , Tsusho (通商), Zyoui (攘夷) originally meant in the East Asia of the 19th century on the historical basis of Kai-Tituzyo (華夷秩序). In 19th century, Japan had two available courses, Tsusho and Zyoui, for dealing with Western foreign powers. Tsusho meant to give foreigners permission of limited trade in Nagasaki. Zyoui meant to expel foreigners who refused Tsusho. And Japan might take a temporary measure while it was not prepared to expel the foreigners yet. That was Washin. The Tokugawa Shogunate Office signed the commercial treaty of free trade in 1858 without domestic agreements, and planned to return to the Washin later. But the Western countries did not recognize the plan. A political group in Japan insisted that Japan should break the treaty if Japan would start a war against the Westerners, and sign a new treaty to which everyone in Japan agreed. They called the strategy Hayakuzyoui (破約攘夷) in 1862-1863. The Hayakuzyoui group did not hesitate to begin war but the Emperor (天皇) and Shogun finally avoided it. Therefore Hayakuzyoui was not realized and the group lost their power.