- マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
- no.82, pp.111-131, 2013-01-31
This research examines how the image of the Other excluded from "national memory" was represented in Japanese television documentaries of the 1950s and 1960s as well as clarifies how intellectuals, journalists, and filmmakers had to resist the contradiction and incoherence of linking "public memory" with "national memory." After World War II, Japan's political, economic and social systems, which had maintained continuity before and during the war, were shaken substantially. Japanese recognition of their role in the war as promoted by the American General Headquarters lacked awareness of the perspective of the Asian nations Japan colonized. Nevertheless, critical television documentaries were made one after another during this time. This paper first examines how Asia's political, economic, and social history as well as changes in the skills and techniques necessary for making television programs influenced the representation of Korea in television documentaries. It then examines the changes in said representation by analyzing program images and interviewing the directors of several television documentary programs. First is Nihon no Sugao: Nihon no Naka no Chosen [The Real Japan: Korea in Japan] (1959: NHK), which was the first television documentary after the end of the war to focus on Koreans in Japan (Zainichi). Second is Daitokai no Ama [Women Divers in the Big City] (1965: Asahi Broadcast), which was made by Japan's first Korean television director. Finally, some documentary programs which portray Korean soldiers who were mobilized as part of the Japanese Army during the war are studied, including Wasurerareta Kogun [Forgotten Imperial Soldiers] (1963: Nihon Broadcast) , directed by Nagisa Oshima. Based on the findings of this study, I concluded that few documentary programs focused on Korea in the early days of television in Japan; however, those that did exist expressed some signs of responsibility for Japanese imperialism and colonialism in Korea.