大橋 信弥
国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History (ISSN:02867400)
vol.194, pp.41-64, 2015-03

西河原木簡をはじめとする近江出土の古代木簡は、量的には多くないが、七世紀後半から八世紀初頭の律令国家成立期の中央と地方の動向を、具体的に検討するうえで、重要な位置を占めている。そして、近江には多くの渡来系氏族と渡来人が、居住しており、近江における文字文化の受容にあたって、渡来人の役割は無視できない。近江の渡来系氏族のうち、倭漢氏の配下である漢人村主の志賀漢人一族は、五世紀末から六世紀の初頭ごろに、河内や大和から大挙この地に移住し、琵琶湖の水運を活用した物流の管理などで、活発な活動を進めた。志賀漢人たちは、当時の蘇我氏が領導する政府の指示により、近江各地に所在した施設に派遣され、湖上交通を活用した物流ネットワークを構築し、主として文書・書類(木簡)の作成にあたっていたとみられる。彼らが、中央で活動する渡来系氏族・渡来人集団とともに、故国である韓半島における文字文化を、素早く受容し共有していたことは、近江の各地で作成され木簡などの文字資料から確認できる。近江出土の古代木簡でもっとも古い、大津市北大津遺跡出土の「音義木簡」が和訓の試行的な段階を示しているのは、この地に居住する渡来人集団、志賀漢人が、五世紀末以来、この地域に移住し活動する中で、中央で達成された行政的な文書の作成技術を導入し、様々な工夫を行ったことを示している。また野洲市西河原遺跡群出土木簡は、この地に所在した施設の運営のため派遣された、志賀漢人の一族の関与を具体的に示している。彼らは、陸上交通(初期の駅路)と琵琶湖の水上交通を利用した、物流・交易の運営を行っており、さらに織物工房・鍛冶工房・木器工房などが付属していた。ここでは、徴税の関わる業務や出挙=貸稲に関わる管理業務が行われており、倉庫群から出土した木簡から、その出納にかかる具体的な運営過程を復元できる。その施設は、初期の野洲郡家(安評家)で、駅の機能も併せ持っていたことが推定される。そして、宮ノ内六号木簡に見える「文作人」石木主寸文通は、「倉札」の作成者であり、この地に居住する志賀漢人一族が、文書の作成に携わっていたことを明確に示している。Ancient wooden tablets excavated from Nishigawara and other parts of the Omi region are important historical materials, though small in number, to investigate the movement of central and local powers in the process of building a ritsuryo nation from the late seventh to the early eighth century. In addition, because there were many Chinese and Korean immigrants and their descendants in Omi at that time, their role in the acceptance of textual culture cannot be dismissed.One of the influential migrant clans in Omi was the Shigano-Ayahito clan, belonging to the Ayahitono-Suguri serving under the Yamatono-Ayauji clan. The Shigano-Ayahito clan came from Kawachi and Yamato around the end of fifth century to the beginning of sixth century and were collectively settled in Omi, where they worked diligently, engaging in the management of distribution along water transportation routes around Lake Biwa. It is considered that they were dispatched to local bases interspersed throughout Omi by the then government led by the Soga clan to establish distribution networks by using lake transport and that they were mainly in charge of producing documents (wooden tablets) . The textual materials, including wooden tablets, unearthed throughout Omi indicate that the Shigano-Ayahito clan quickly accepted and shared textual culture derived from the Korean Peninsula, their homeland, as other immigrants and descendants of immigrants working at the central government did.The ongi wooden tablets (documents regarding the pronunciation and meaning of characters) unearthed from the Northern Otsu Site in Otsu City are the oldest ancient wooden tablets discovered in Omi. They describe the trials and errors in ancient times to establish the Japanese reading of Chinese characters, which means that while settling and working in the area after the end of the fifth century, an immigrant clan of the Shigano-Ayahito not only adopted the administrative documentwriting techniques established by the central government but also devised a variety of their own methods. The wooden tablets excavated at the Nishigawara Site in Yasu City specifically indicate the involvement of the Shigano-Ayahito clan who were dispatched to manage the local facility in the area. They controlled distribution and trade based on water transportation around Lake Biwa, as well as land transportation (primitive principal roads called ekiro) . They also had workshops including fabric, blacksmithing, and wooden tool production workshops. Moreover, they engaged in taxation and loan (suiko) management in relation to rice. The concrete procedures of receipt and issue of storehouse materials can be seen in wooden tablets excavated from storehouse ruins. It is assumed that their facility was the initial Yasuno-Korinomiyake ( Yasu district government) , which also had the function of umaya ( station) . Furthermore, Miyanouchi Wooden Tablet VI contains the phras"e「bunsakunin」 Iwaki-no-suguri-humimiti" to indicate the name of the writer of the wooden tablet (kura-fuda) , which provides evidence that the Shigano-Ayahito clan who resided in the area were involved in document production.


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