- 東方学報 = Journal of Oriental studies (ISSN:03042448)
- vol.91, pp.450-309, 2016-12
This paper is translation and annotation on 1280's edict "which prohibited for sarta'ul (Muslims and Jews) to slaughter sheep by slitting the throat and to perform the sunnat (circumcision) 禁囘囘抹殺羊做速納" preserved in Yuan dian-chang (57, f. 11a9-f. 11b10.). Reading various primary sources such as Yuan shi 元史, Jāmi'al-Tavārīkh, Il Milione in the original, make clear that promulgation of this edict caused by keen struggle for power and money between two parties ; one was the Muslims led by Ahhmad Fanākatī who was a minion and the Finance Minister of Qubilai-Qa'an 世祖, the other was composed of the high officials and Uighur merchants that were mostly Nestorian Christians and put their hopes on Prince Činkim. The ultimate purpose of this prohibitory decree was to interrupt the former business on a Eurasian scale. In order to slander Ahḥmad' party, it enumerated some instances ; Sufi's rebellions which happened at Bukhara (there were dependencies of Tolui's family.) in Central Asia and another cities under the Hulegu ulus, and Hulegud vizier's betrayals which held secret communication with the Mamluk or Joči's ulus adopting a slogan of Islamic state. It must be far from Qubilai's true intention. Actually, he repealed it as soon as Činkim was confined. The struggle of two parties continued after Qubilai's death. His grandson Ananda not 553 only entered into rivalry with Činkim's son Temur-Qa'an ����宗by exploiting this situation but also attempted to obtain the cooperation of Hulegud Gazan-Qan and Mongol princes of Central Asia for the purpose of becoming next Qa'an. Thus he pretended to be a Muslim. Besides, as supporting evidences for prompt and frequent exchange of information between Dai on yeke Mongγol ulus 大元大蒙古國 and Hulegu's ulus, I furnish some themes such as collecting Buddha's ashes and it' welcome ceremonies, producing Mappa mundi (world map) and Rāh-nāmah (portolano), manufacturing portraits of Mongol royal families and planning capitals. Then I reconsider about the context of many manuscripts of "History of Mongol" in the Jāmi'al-Tavārīkh can be classified into two main groups from miniature painting's angle. Finally I point out a serious scandal that may be one of the causes of discord between Qubilai and Činkim, that is to say, Ayurbarwada-Qa'an 仁宗 was not Qubilai's great-grandson but was his love child.