- 史学研究会 (京都大学文学部内)
- 史林 (ISSN:03869369)
- vol.88, no.6, pp.814-844, 2005-11
中国の歴代王朝は、孔子と儒教を尊重し、山東省曲阜筆の孔子廟とそこに住まう孔子の子孫を特別に保護してきた。衍聖公とは、宋代以降、本家の当主が世襲してきた爵位である。孔子の子孫は、戦争や一族の内紛によって、次第に曲阜から全国各地に散らばっていった。『新安文献志』には、大元ウルスの至正年間に、衍聖公が徽州在住の孔子の子孫に発給した極めて珍しい命令書が収録されている。この命令書は、携帯する者が孔子の正統な子孫であることを証明し、かれらが江南に進学する際に、宿泊費、旅費、食費、書籍購入費を、当地の廟学、書院が支給することを命じた一種のパスポートであった。とうじ、孔子の子孫のみならず顔子、孟子の子孫もこの特別待遇をうけられた。こうした命令書の発給が可能になった背景には、仁宗アユルバルワダ以降の朝廷によって進められた衍聖公の権力の強化と、全国から集められた孔・顔・孟三氏の家系図の整理事業があったと考えられる。Successive Chinese dynasties have esteemed Kongzi 孔子 (Confucius) and Confucian learning and have bestowed special privileges to the temple of Kongzi at Qufu 曲阜 in Shandong and to his descendants. Yanshenggong 衍聖公 was the hereditary title of nobility granted to the heirs of Kongzi after the Song dynasty. The descendants of Kongzi were gradually dispersed throughout the land from Qufu due to warfare and internal strife within the family. As a result of the Jurchen advance into northern China in particular, the main line of Kongzi was split into two houses, and holders of the title Yanshenggong arose in Qufu under the Jin dynasty and also in Quzhou 衢州 under the Southern Song. Furthermore, amidst the turmoil at the demise of the Jin dynasty, the Mongol court, or the bureaucrats who administered the Shandong area under their rule, strove from early on to protect Qufu and the descendants there, but, because of over zealousness on both sides, the awkward situation of having two holders of the title Yanshenggong at the same time arose at Qufu. The situation was soon remedied by the intervention of the Mongol court, but this was ultimately simply papering over a deeper rift, and become a source of the long-term conflict within Kongzi family at Qufu. On the other hand, after take over of the Southern Song by the founder of the dynasty, Kublai khan, the Kongzi family in Quzhou relinquished the title of Yanshenggong, and thereafter only one person held the title. However, the questions of just when after the time of Kublai the Yanshenggong obtained real power, what concrete authority was exercised, and what orders were issued to temple schools 廟学 and private academies 書院, the Kong family and Confucian scholars throughout the land has never been examined. Nor can it be said that historical sources of various types such as texts, stone inscriptions and archival government documents that are concerned with the relationship between the Kong family in Qufu and branches of family around the nation have been sufficiently explored. In the work known as the Xinanwenxianzhi 新安文献志 are found the extremely rare written orders of 55th Yanshenggong, Kong Kejian 孔克堅, to Kong Kehuan 孔克煥, and his three brothers, descendants of Kongzi who resided in Huizhou 徽州 during the Zhizheng 至正 era of the Daion ulus (Yuan dynasty). This written order verified the holder as a genuine descendant of Kongzi and functioned something like a passport, ordering that the costs of lodging, travel, food, and book purchases be born by the local temple schools and academies when these descendants traveled in the South江南. Moreover, the same written orders were issued to other descendants of Kongzi throughout the nation. The famous mid-Ming era official Wu Kuan 呉寛 actually saw one of these documents. Furthermore, it was not only the descendants of Kongzi, but also those of Yanzi 顔子 and Mengzi 孟子 who also received such special treatment. Because a particularly plush lifestyle was guaranteed them, there were even cases of officials resigning their posts to become itinerant scholars. Kong Keqi 孔克斉, the author of Zhizhenghiji 至正直記, was probably able to travel about the land and obtain vast knowledge, and establish his reputation as a collector of books and rubbings by virtue of having received such an order from the Yanshenggong. The historical background that made the issuing of such orders by the Yanshenggong possible was the deliberate bestowal and strengthening of the authority of Kong Sihui 孔思晦, the 54th Yanshenggong (who had Jurchen blood and was the father of Kejian) by the imperial court after Renzong 仁宗 (Ayurbarwada), and the fact that he was provided personnel, material assistance, and funding because his home functioned as the national general headquarters of Confucian scholars and as a government office. It should also be noted that Kong Sihui himself directed the organization of the lineages of the three families, Kong, Yan, and Meng.