著者
松野 良寅
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1991, no.23, pp.99-113, 1990 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
27

The calamity of the siege war of Wakamatsu Castle was beyond description. A group of daring women (joshigun) fought with halberds (naginata), while some mothers, thinking they would rather kill themselves than be encumbrances to the besieged or than fall into the enemy only to be outraged by them, stabbed their children and then fell on their swords.Sutematsu, a sister of a retainer, entered the castle with her mother and sisters and survived the war. She was lucky to be chosen one of the girl students sent to America and, leading a happy life at a Puritan home, graduated from Vassar College with unprecedented honors. Soon after she came back to Japan she wrote a letter to an American friend of hers, saying : though they often say of dying for the honor of their country, I beieve it is much more difficult to live than to die for the country and what Japan needs most is a long sustained effort that can be made only by those who are anxious to serve this country.We may say that Western learning in Aizu started early in the Meiji era when Yamakawa Kenjiro and her sister Sutematsu were sent to America for learning English studies by Kaitakushi (a government agency for the development of Hokkaido).This paper concerns how English studies influenced upon Oyama Sutematsu who was typical of those women that, after living through the calamity of the siege war, led trag ical lives at their early age and eventually found a new way of living by the chance to learn and appreciate Cristianity and its culture.
著者
松野 良寅
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.99-113, 1990

The calamity of the siege war of Wakamatsu Castle was beyond description. A group of daring women (<I>joshigun</I>) fought with halberds (<I>naginata</I>), while some mothers, thinking they would rather kill themselves than be encumbrances to the besieged or than fall into the enemy only to be outraged by them, stabbed their children and then fell on their swords.<BR>Sutematsu, a sister of a retainer, entered the castle with her mother and sisters and survived the war. She was lucky to be chosen one of the girl students sent to America and, leading a happy life at a Puritan home, graduated from Vassar College with unprecedented honors. Soon after she came back to Japan she wrote a letter to an American friend of hers, saying : though they often say of dying for the honor of their country, I beieve it is much more difficult to live than to die for the country and what Japan needs most is a long sustained effort that can be made only by those who are anxious to serve this country.<BR>We may say that Western learning in Aizu started early in the Meiji era when Yamakawa Kenjiro and her sister Sutematsu were sent to America for learning English studies by <I>Kaitakushi</I> (a government agency for the development of Hokkaido).<BR>This paper concerns how English studies influenced upon Oyama Sutematsu who was typical of those women that, after living through the calamity of the siege war, led trag ical lives at their early age and eventually found a new way of living by the chance to learn and appreciate Cristianity and its culture.
著者
松野 良寅
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1999, no.31, pp.147-166, 1998 (Released:2009-09-16)

The Russian government sent Nikolai P. Rezanov as the sencond special envoy to Japan in 1804, but, to his great disappointment his offers were refused and the negotiations broke down.His disappointment turned into resentment, until he made up his mind to seek revenge on Japan and ordered his men, Khvostov and Davidov, to make assaults on Japanese bases in Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, in retaliation for Japan's refusal of Russia's requirement for trade.Khvostov assaulted Etorofu Island, plundering the island and setting fire to the guardhouse and the warehouse, and when he left the island, he left a note behind to the Japanese official. By having Doeff, superintendent of Dutch factory, read the note, it was found that the note was a declaration written in Russian and French, showing their motive for their assaults on Japanese bases.After that, another incident happened at Kunashiri Island in 1811. The Diana, a Russian surveying ship, appeared off Kunashiri Island and when the captain V. M. Golovnin and his men were getting to land, Japanese officials played tricks on the Russians and succeeded in capturing them.Golovnin and seven other Russians were transferred to Matsumae and imprisoned there for about two years.During their imprisonment, Golovnin instructed Sadasuke Murakami, Sajaroh Baba, Sanai Adachi and others in Russian. As each student had by nature an aptitude for languages the instruction in Russian by Golovnin was quite successful and it was to take the initiative in studying foreign languages except Dutch in Japan.