著者
小玉 敏子
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2000, no.32, pp.1-11, 1999 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
17

Some twenty years ago, this writer referred to Exercises in the Yokohama Dialect in Yokohama in the Meiji Era. As Frank Daniels (1948) states, “for all its fooling (humorous 'English' spellings of Japanese words, mock-serious grammatical notes, etc.), ” the pamphlet shows its author to have been “an acute and accurate observer.” The review of the pamphlet in The Japan Gazette (Nov. 1, 1879), reprinted from The New Quarterly Magazine, indicates the author of the pamphlet was Hoffman Atkinson, though his name does not appear on any of the copies this writer has seen. Hoffman Atkinson was a resident of Yokohama for several years and later became secretary of the American Legation in St. Petersburg.No copy of the first edition has been found, but its review is found in The Japan Weekly Mail (Nov. 22, 1873). A copy of the second edition (1874), as well as some copies of the revised and enlarged edition, has been kept in the Yokohama Archives of History. The edition, revised and enlarged by “the Bishop of Homoco, ” was published in 1879, and has been reprinted many times, though the date of reprint is not always included.Some facts about F. A. Cope, whose pseudonym was “the Bishop of Homoco, ” and about John Grigor and Ng Choy, to whom, in addition to Max Muller, the pamphlet was dedicated, have been ascertained.
著者
高木 大幹
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1982, no.14, pp.73-86, 1981 (Released:2009-09-16)

It is more than 25 years since Nobuyuki Imai passed away of liver cancer, and now is the time, I suppose, to talk about him, because 25 years is not so short, and suitable to take an objective view of him and his works. Soon after the war end, he came to Nara to hunt curios. He was a connoisseur of antique objects, and looked very happy in the ancient capital of Japan. I have not met him ever since. About five years later I was much shocked to hear of his decease, which might inevitably bring about the discontinuation of “Current of the World.” Talking of “Current of the World”, it made its first appearance in 1924, next year of the Kanto earthquake. It may be said that the kind of English magazine was being looked for by a lot of Japanese intellingentzia though there were two other big English magazines, “The Rising Generation” and “The Study of English.” He was a teacher and then became a journalist in English, whose experince was wonderfully put to practical use, the former to the foundation of “Weekly” and “Correspondence Course”, and the latter to “Current of the World.” He set up the Eigo-tsushinsha at Sendagi-cho, Hongo, which was transferred to Nishikata-cho, Hongo in 1919. He distinguished himself in his work. He made a hit with his “Weekly” which was read as a side-reader at almost all middle schools throughout Japan, and also “Current of the World” had a remarkable circulation. It seemed he swept away everything in his way. “Current of the World” had two major objects; one was giving reading materials in current English to intellectuals, and the other was Japanese English translation which was always in Imai's charge. And this was very famous with his unique remark. I hope the latter will be published as a book which, I believe, will be utterly helpful to university students and intelligent public persons. Imai had a rosy future with other plans, but World War II and his illness made them a very remote possibility. No, his death brought a close to everything.
著者
出来 成訓
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.101-108, 1977

日本に生まれ, 日本の学校教育を受けた人間にとって, 外国語に習熟することはきわめて困難なことである。教授法や数材の研究が他の語学にくらべて相当に進んでいると思われる英語においても, やはり同じことが言えよう。特に「書く」領域についてこの感が深い。<BR>安藤貫一は, この外国語研究の中でももっとも困難な「書く力」に秀でた逸材であった。その死去に際して雑誌「英語青年」が2号に渡って記念号を出したほどの有名人であった安藤貫一ではあるが, 現在では殆んど忘れられた人物となっている。英文学や英語学の研究者と違って英文ライターの仕事は恵まれない。日本人の英訳した日本文学を読む日本人など殆んどいないからである。前記「英語青年」記念号を主たる資料として, 安藤貫一の生涯と業績をながめてみたい。
著者
長岡 祥三
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1997, no.29, pp.1-12, 1996 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
54

Arthur Diosy was born in London in 1856. His father Martin was a Hungarian patriot who escaped to England when the revolution failed in 1849.Arthur had a great interest in Japan from his childhood, therefore he studied Japanese language and things Japanese by himself. He proposed the establishment of a society for the encouragement of Japanese studies in September of 1891. The inaugugural meeting of the Japan Society was held in April 1892, when he was nominated as honorary secretary and later became vice-chairman.He lectured about Japan many times all over the country and published a book “The New Far East” in 1898 which won great success. The following year he visited Japan with his wife for the first time, and received a great welcome from many Japanese people during their four-month-stay.He served as a chairman of the Japan Society from 1901 to 1904 and then became vice-president. He welcomed all of the royalties and eminent people of Japan who visited England with warmest hospitality until his death in 1923.
著者
遠藤 智夫
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2004, no.36, pp.101-116, 2003 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
23

In Makino Library (on the grounds of Kochi Prefecture's Makino Botanical Garden), the writer made a close examination of a first-edition copy of A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Japanese Language (sic) . The copy of that rare book is one of only seventeen still in existence, out of the two hundred copies printed in the Edo era in 1862. Dr. Tomitaro Makino, a worldfamous botanist, possessed a first edition of the Dictionary, and also had six copies of the Dictionary. Why did he have so many copies of the Dictionary and how did he use them in his study of botany?In the preface for the second edition of theDictionary, the composer HORIKOSI KAMENOSKAY (sic) said that the first edition contained a number of errors regarding the Japanese and Chinese names of Plants, Animals and Minerals that needed to be corrected and that he had done so with the kind assistance of his learned friends YANAGAWA SUNSAM (sic), TANAKA YOSIWO (sic) & others.When Dr. Makino was a young man, he visited Dr. Yoshio Tanaka, a noted naturalist, and Dr. Tanaka remained one of Dr. Makino's most important mentors throughout his life. No doubt Dr. Makino frequently consulted the second edition of the Dictionary to help him choose the exact equivalent in Japanese terms when he was writing An Illustrated Flora of Japan.This report is based on the paper read by the writer at the regular monthly meeting on November 2, 2002.
著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1987, no.19, pp.91-108, 1986-11-01 (Released:2010-02-22)
参考文献数
55

Taizo Masaki, the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (Tokyo Industrial School), is most prominently mentioned in “Yoshida Torajiro”, a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. From 1876 to 1881, Masaki was in Great Britain supervising Japanese students. In the summer of 1878, he met Stevenson at Edinburgh, and told him about the Japanese anti-Shogunate revolutionary Shoin Yoshida, who was Masaki's teacher when he was a young boy. It is not clear, however, what precisely Masaki's main work in Britain involved. In this article, his history and achievements there will be described.Masaki was born on October 24, 1846 as the third son of Jiemon Masaki, a high ranking samurai in Choshu. Choshu was a hotbed or revolutionary activity against the centralized federal Shogunate regime, and many of his family were likewise revolutionaries, later assuming a number of important roles in the Meiji Revolution. Furthermore, there were many great revolutionaries and statesmen around him including Kaoru Inoue, Takayoshi Kido and Saneomi Hirosawa. Thus, the formation of Masaki's character doubtlessly was affected by them. When he was about thirteen years old, he attended Yoshida's private school, Shokason-Juku. He became the page of Motonori Mori, the Prince of the Daimyo Lord of Choshu. The Daimyo was cut off from the progressive camp, and so Masaki acted as his mesenger.After the Meiji Revolution of 1871, Masaki was dispatched to Great Britain to study modern mintage technology. In fact, however, he studied chemistry at University College in London. At this time, he met R. W. Atkinson and invited him to go to Japan as a professor of Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. In 1874, Masaki returned to Japan with Atkinson, and worked as an assistant professor for Atkinson for about two years at Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. He taught basic chemistry, including analytical chemistry and chemical experimentation. He was the first Japanese to teach modern Western chemistry in a Japanese university.In June, 1878, Masaki went to Great Britain again as the supervisor of new students newly selected for study abroad from Tokyo Kaisei Gakko, and stayed there for 5 years. In 1881, he came back from Britain, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (presently Tokyo Institute of Technology). For nine years, he worked earnestly to establish the first Western-style industrial school in Japan. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as the consul general of Hawaii. But his life in Hawaii was not long. He returned to Japan in December 1892, and retired from public service for reasons of his health, and he died on April 5, 1896.Masaki's main accomplishment in Britain can be classified in terms of three categories. First, he took care of the Japanese students in Europe. We can read his annual reports from Britain, which describe the activities of his students. Secondly, he was able to find good teachers for new schools or universities in Japan. One of these was famous physicist Sir J. A. Ewing. In Edinburgh, along with Ewing, he also met Stevenson. It was during this time, that he gave Stevenson his account of his teacher Shoin Yoshida. Thirdly, he conducted research in the area of modern education in Europe. He worte many articles in Japanese educational journals, including translated articles or lectures and his own reports of experience in Great Britain.Taizo Masaki's achievements in Great Britain were important to education, particularly industrial education in early Meiji Era.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.85-101, 1993

The Tokugawas established the School Fuchu (Shizuoka) Gakumonjo in Suruga in the autumn of 1868 as their major undertaking after the debacle of the Shogunate. In straitened circumstances they found a gleam of light in educa-tion for their future.<BR>Gohachiro Namura was the head of the professors of English at this school. Unfortunately, however, we seldom come across his name as such in the litera-ture concerning the school. Instead, the name of Taizo Namura, who has nothing to do with the school, is often seen as a professor at the school. There are cases where Taizo's personal history is mistaken for Gohachiro's, or, vice versa.<BR>In this paper, the causes of this confusion are discussed, and personal his-tories of Gohachiro and Taizo are presented. Gohachiro was a son of Hachiemon Namura, a very able official Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Taizo is said to have become a stepson of Hachiemon. Both Gohachiro and Taizo learnd Dutch and worked as Dutch intepreters at Nagasaki in the beginning, and they learned English and other foreign languages in addition, which made them indispensa-ble persons for modernization of Japan.<BR>Gohachiro was one of the Japanese who studied and taught English earliest in Japan : he was one of the compilers of an English and Japanese dictionary, 1851-1854 (uncompleted), the second English and Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan. He was one of the interpreters when the Treaty of Peace and Amity was signed between the United States and Japan in 1854. He served as the chief interpreter of the first Japanese embassy to the United States in 1860, and also of the Japanese embassy to Russia in 1866.<BR>Taizo was known for his ability in French. He was appointed an interpreter for a group of French technical instructors and workers for the construction of an iron foundary in Yokohama in 1862. He went to France to work for an International Exhibition at Paris in 1867, which Japan took part in for the first time. After the Restoration of 1868 he was employed by the new government at Nagasaki, where he taught French at a language institute transmitted to the new government. He entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tokyo in 1869. He moved to the Ministry of Justice in 1872. He was appointed as an Acting President of the Supreme Court in 1892, and as a member of the House of Peers in 1894. One of his most important contribution was, perhaps, the introduction of French law into Japan, serving as an interpreter and assistant for a famous French professor in law, Dr. Gustave Emile Boissonade de Fontarabie (1825-1910).<BR>The confusion between Gohachiro and Taizo was originated in a simple mistake in a paper published in 1917, where the author wrote "Gohachiro (Taizo) Namura", in his judgement that Taizo must have been Gohachiro's later name. Then, another authour, in his book published in 1934, noted just "Taizo Namura" in the list of professors at the school. Because this book is one of the basic books in the field, the confusion has been handed down to many other authors.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.39, pp.19-44, 2006 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
34

Kichijuro Narinori Nishi (1835-1891) was a 12th generation Nishi. In 1839 he was employed as pupil interpreter at the age of 4, the youngest of all the interpreters in Japanese history. Kichijuro was one of the compilers of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan (1850-1854). He was one of the interpreters to Admiral E.V. Putyatin's Russian squadron that visited Nagasaki in 1853. In 1858 he was assigned, together with Eizaemon Narabayashi, as head of Nagasaki Eigo Denshujo, an institution for the study of English. Shortly after this assignment, he was summoned to Edo to serve as an interpreter for the visits of English and Russian representatives to Edo. Subsequently, he was taken into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Tokugawa government. He acted as interpreter at the most important conferences between the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and foreign representatives in the days when Japan was opened to foreign commerce for the first time. In close cooperation with Takichiro Moriyama, he was involved in translating the related correspondences and other documents including treaties. He went to Europe as the principal interpreter of the Japanese embassy in 1864.With the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, when the Tokugawa family surrendered Edo Castle and was forced to return to Suruga (Shizuoka), their homeland, Kichijuro decided to accept the appointment to accompany the family to be in chage of the teachers of foreign languages at a school to be established there. But, in fact, it turned out that he served not as a teacher but as an administrative official.In 1871, he was taken into the Ministry of Justice of the Meiji government, where he spent the rest of his career, being promoted to President of the Supreme Court.This paper reports with special emphasis on Kichijuro's earlier half of his career, of which, to-date, little has been known. A family tree of the Nishi, from Kichibe Nishi at the beginning of the first generation in 1616 to Shigendo Nishi, the 16th contemporary generation, is presented.
著者
西岡 淑雄
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.133-146, 1990

Junjiro Hosokawa (1834-1923) was a scholar of Chinese classics and a jurist born in the province of Tosa.<BR>In 1890 he was appointed member of the House of Peers, and in 1893 member of Privy Council. He was raised on the baronage in 1900.<BR>In his youth he studied Dutch and English, and also artillery and navigation at Nagasaki and Yedo. He became the chief of <I>Yaku Kyoku</I> (Translation Bureau) of <I>Kaiseikan</I> established by the Tosa clan.<BR>In 1871 he was sent to San Francisco where an Exhibition was to be held. After the exhibition he made a tour over the continent as far as the cities on the eastern coast. He kept a diary of the tour in Chinese classics and published a book titled <I>Shinkohu Kiho</I> (Journal of the first visit to a foreign country). His book tells how successfully he carried out his mission and how closely he watched things American.<BR>The latter half of this essay is on John Reddie Black and the <I>Nisshin Shinjishi</I>. When the government wanted Black to quit his business and employed him as a foreign consultant, Junjiro Hosokawa visited Black and pursuaded him. Several historians affirms so. But judging from Black's letter to the British consulate, I guess it was not Junjiro Hosokawa that visited Black but another man named Hiroyo Hosokawa.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1989, no.21, pp.37-60, 1988-10-01 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
40

Tsunenosuke Namura was one of the 14 lucky students of Ranald Mac-Donald, the first American who taught English to the Japanese official Dutch interpreters for about seven months while he was imprisoned at Nagasaki in 1848. Gohatiro Namura was the chief interpreter of the first Japanese embassy to the United States in 1860. He was also one of the interpreters when the treaty of peace and amity was signed between the United States and Japan in 1854 through the efforts of Commodore M. C. Perry. At that time Gohatiro already had a certain knowledge of English, and because of this, Tsunenosuke was sometimes mistaken for Gohatiro or his father Sadagoro.This paper presents the results of the author's research of the Namura genealogy. Tsunenosuke and Gohatiro were two different persons, but were descendants of the same ancestor, Hachizaemon Namura, who started to work as Dutch interpreter in 1640.The numerous achievements of the members of the Namura family not only in the international relations but also in the teaching and learning of Dutch and English languages during the period of more than 200 years are described.
著者
菊池 重郎
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1973, no.5, pp.153-168, 1972-04-30 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
11
著者
山下 重一
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.33, pp.57-71, 2000

The first Japanese translation of "<I>On Liberty</I>" by Keiu Nakamura was published in Shizuoka in 1872, and the first Chinese translation of the same book by Yen Fu was published in Shanghai in 1903. This paper intends to examine reception of Mill's ideas in modern Japan and China by comparing the two translations of chapter III of "<I>On Liberty</I>" on individuality.<BR>Nakamura and Yen Fu had studied in Englan-the former from 1866 to 1868 and the latter from 1877 to 1879-, and both of them endeavoured to introduce Western ideas to their countries. They learnt from the Mill's book the great importance of liberty of thought and action, especially individuality of thought and mode of life. In chapter III of "<I>On Liberty</I>", Mill emphasized individuality of character, and variety of situations as the conditions of individual happiness and social progress and he preferred active and energetic character to passive and indolent one. Their translations of "<I>On Liberty</I>" clearly reflected their deep sympathy with Mill's ideas <I>On Liberty</I>.<BR>While Mill contemplated the liberty of thought, discussion and mode of life in mid-Victorian England, he was anxious about the approaching mass society which would oppress individuality and variety by enforcing conformity of thought and action. Though Nakamura and Yen Fu were living in quite a different atmosphere, they sincerely accepted Mill's principle of liberty.Nakamura who was an eminent thinker of enlightenment in early Meiji Japan and Yen Fu who was a passionate patriot in semi-colonized China, respectively accepted Mill's idea of individuality as a springboard to enlighten their own nations' energy and morality. Their translations of "<I>On Liberty</I>" were the grand monuments of the reception of Western ideas in Japan and China.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.1-15, 2002
被引用文献数
0 or 1

Nishi is a most reputable family of Japanese-Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Kichibe Nishi, the 1st, began his career as interpreter in Portuguese in 1616 and then in Dutch in 1641.<BR>Kichibe Nishi (1811-1854), the 11th, was a chief compiler of <I>Egeresugo Jisho Wage</I>, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan, and his son Kichijuro (1835-1891) was also one of the compilers. The dictionary, compiled from 1851 through 1854 but unfinished, was a fruit of the government order in 1850 to study English and Russian languages and to compile an EnglishJapanese dictionary, which was the second in history after the first similar government order in 1809.<BR>In 1853 Japan faced with one of the biggest events in history, the visits of Commodore M. C. Perry and also Admiral E. V. Putyatin with their squadrons, requesting the opening of Japan, and the interpreters were forced to be involved in those events. Major compilers of the dictionary, Kichibe Nishi, Einosuke Moriyama, Eishichiro Narabayashi and Gohachiro Namura, played important parts in them as well. Kichibe Nishi was the chief of the interpreter corps to Admiral E. V. Putyatin. He was used to be assigned tasks to facilitate confidential Dutch-Japanese talks between J. H. <I>Donker Curtius</I>, Superintendent of the Dutch Deshima Factory, and the Governor of Nagasaki over ways to deal with the foreign powers.<BR>Although it was unfortunate that the dictionary was left unfinished under those circumstances, the efforts of the interpreters directed to their study of English were to be highly valued, since many of them made the most of their knowledge of English in their work and in teaching English. Kichibe Nishi, who took charge of their studies of English, was also an excellent teacher of Dutch to many of those interpreters in their childhood. His life, which has little been known, is described in this paper.
著者
櫻井 豪人
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2002, no.34, pp.37-45, 2001 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
16
著者
松野 良寅
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1991, no.23, pp.99-113, 1990 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
27

The calamity of the siege war of Wakamatsu Castle was beyond description. A group of daring women (joshigun) fought with halberds (naginata), while some mothers, thinking they would rather kill themselves than be encumbrances to the besieged or than fall into the enemy only to be outraged by them, stabbed their children and then fell on their swords.Sutematsu, a sister of a retainer, entered the castle with her mother and sisters and survived the war. She was lucky to be chosen one of the girl students sent to America and, leading a happy life at a Puritan home, graduated from Vassar College with unprecedented honors. Soon after she came back to Japan she wrote a letter to an American friend of hers, saying : though they often say of dying for the honor of their country, I beieve it is much more difficult to live than to die for the country and what Japan needs most is a long sustained effort that can be made only by those who are anxious to serve this country.We may say that Western learning in Aizu started early in the Meiji era when Yamakawa Kenjiro and her sister Sutematsu were sent to America for learning English studies by Kaitakushi (a government agency for the development of Hokkaido).This paper concerns how English studies influenced upon Oyama Sutematsu who was typical of those women that, after living through the calamity of the siege war, led trag ical lives at their early age and eventually found a new way of living by the chance to learn and appreciate Cristianity and its culture.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.35, pp.1-15, 2002 (Released:2010-01-25)
参考文献数
13

Nishi is a most reputable family of Japanese-Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Kichibe Nishi, the 1st, began his career as interpreter in Portuguese in 1616 and then in Dutch in 1641.Kichibe Nishi (1811-1854), the 11th, was a chief compiler of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan, and his son Kichijuro (1835-1891) was also one of the compilers. The dictionary, compiled from 1851 through 1854 but unfinished, was a fruit of the government order in 1850 to study English and Russian languages and to compile an EnglishJapanese dictionary, which was the second in history after the first similar government order in 1809.In 1853 Japan faced with one of the biggest events in history, the visits of Commodore M. C. Perry and also Admiral E. V. Putyatin with their squadrons, requesting the opening of Japan, and the interpreters were forced to be involved in those events. Major compilers of the dictionary, Kichibe Nishi, Einosuke Moriyama, Eishichiro Narabayashi and Gohachiro Namura, played important parts in them as well. Kichibe Nishi was the chief of the interpreter corps to Admiral E. V. Putyatin. He was used to be assigned tasks to facilitate confidential Dutch-Japanese talks between J. H. Donker Curtius, Superintendent of the Dutch Deshima Factory, and the Governor of Nagasaki over ways to deal with the foreign powers.Although it was unfortunate that the dictionary was left unfinished under those circumstances, the efforts of the interpreters directed to their study of English were to be highly valued, since many of them made the most of their knowledge of English in their work and in teaching English. Kichibe Nishi, who took charge of their studies of English, was also an excellent teacher of Dutch to many of those interpreters in their childhood. His life, which has little been known, is described in this paper.
著者
三好 彰
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.39, pp.59-79, 2006 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
32

The first printed Dictionary of English and Japanese Languages was compiled by Hori Tatsnoskay and published in 1862, and it was revised by Horikosi Kamenoskay in 1866. The dictionary was a historical landmark in the Japanese English academia.It has been generally considered that all vocabulary entries of the dictionary had been obtained from “A new pocket dictionary of the English and Dutch languages by H. Picard, 1857 (Picard-1857)”, and the Dutch words of Picard-1857 had been translated into Japanese using several preceding dictionaries of Dutch and Japanese languages. But precise investigation of names of birds makes it clear that some English dictionaries had been used to translate names of birds into Japanese, because there are eleven groups of words in Picard-1857 whose English words that have an identical bird name in Dutch are translated in different Japanese.Moreover, Hori Tatsnoskay got three Japanese words of birds from corresponding Dutch words which have been found not in the Picard-1857, but in the Picard's dictionary of the first edition published in 1843 (Picard-1843).The dictionary revised by Horikoshi Kamenoskay has two English words of birds which are not found in either Picard-1843 or Picard-1857. Since more than half names of birds have been updated by Horikoshi Kamenoskay, the dictionary is good enough for general users.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.33, pp.13-27, 2000

Based on the extracts of 4 letters in the <I>Spirit of Missions</I> quoted from the <I>New York Journal of Commerce</I>, the author has already reported on the teaching of English by Henry Wood, and pointed out his great contribution to the history of both Christianity and English studies in Japan.<BR>The present paper deals mainly with the study of 3 out of the 4 letters in the <I>New York Journal of Commerce</I>, for which Henry Wood acted as a correspondent during his service on the U. S. Ship Powhatan. He also sent many letters on other subjects. The 3 letters concerned here contained important information unquoted in the <I>Spirit of Missions</I>. Some examples are as follows. Each of the 3 letters was headed "MY SCHOOL AND (MY) SCHOLARS IN JAPAN." With no knowledge of Dutch or Japanese, Wood utilized some English-Dutch dictionaries and one or two Dutch-Japanese dictionaries, and also used the primitive language-the language of signs-to define particular words. He was confident that the Japanese were hopeful for Christianity, and that the method of conducting them to Christianity, under its prohibition, would be by teaching them English.<BR>Henry Wood was born on April 10, 1796, in Louden, NH. He received a Master of Arts degree from Dartmouth College in 1822, and was a tutor at Dartmouth College in 1822-23. After studying divinity at Princeton Theological Seminary for about one year in 1823-24, he was a senior tutor of Latin and Greek at Hampden-Sydney College in 1824-25. He was ordained in the Congregational Church in 1826 and in the Presbyterian Church before 1856. He was U. S. Consul at Beirut, Syria from 1853-56. He was commissioned Chaplain of U. S. Navy on September 11, 1856. He was on the U. S. Ship Powhatan in the Chinese and Japanese seas in 1858-60. In 1858 he sent two letters to the authority of the Reformed Dutch Church of the United States, appealing to establish its mission at Nagasaki. He taught English to the Japanese at Nagasaki in 1858 and on the Powhatan in 1860. He was stationed at the Naval Asylum in Philadelphia in 1863. He died in Philadelphia on October 9, 1873.