著者
小玉 敏子
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2000, no.32, pp.1-11, 1999 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
17

Some twenty years ago, this writer referred to Exercises in the Yokohama Dialect in Yokohama in the Meiji Era. As Frank Daniels (1948) states, “for all its fooling (humorous 'English' spellings of Japanese words, mock-serious grammatical notes, etc.), ” the pamphlet shows its author to have been “an acute and accurate observer.” The review of the pamphlet in The Japan Gazette (Nov. 1, 1879), reprinted from The New Quarterly Magazine, indicates the author of the pamphlet was Hoffman Atkinson, though his name does not appear on any of the copies this writer has seen. Hoffman Atkinson was a resident of Yokohama for several years and later became secretary of the American Legation in St. Petersburg.No copy of the first edition has been found, but its review is found in The Japan Weekly Mail (Nov. 22, 1873). A copy of the second edition (1874), as well as some copies of the revised and enlarged edition, has been kept in the Yokohama Archives of History. The edition, revised and enlarged by “the Bishop of Homoco, ” was published in 1879, and has been reprinted many times, though the date of reprint is not always included.Some facts about F. A. Cope, whose pseudonym was “the Bishop of Homoco, ” and about John Grigor and Ng Choy, to whom, in addition to Max Muller, the pamphlet was dedicated, have been ascertained.
著者
遠藤 智夫
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2004, no.36, pp.101-116, 2003 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
23

In Makino Library (on the grounds of Kochi Prefecture's Makino Botanical Garden), the writer made a close examination of a first-edition copy of A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Japanese Language (sic) . The copy of that rare book is one of only seventeen still in existence, out of the two hundred copies printed in the Edo era in 1862. Dr. Tomitaro Makino, a worldfamous botanist, possessed a first edition of the Dictionary, and also had six copies of the Dictionary. Why did he have so many copies of the Dictionary and how did he use them in his study of botany?In the preface for the second edition of theDictionary, the composer HORIKOSI KAMENOSKAY (sic) said that the first edition contained a number of errors regarding the Japanese and Chinese names of Plants, Animals and Minerals that needed to be corrected and that he had done so with the kind assistance of his learned friends YANAGAWA SUNSAM (sic), TANAKA YOSIWO (sic) & others.When Dr. Makino was a young man, he visited Dr. Yoshio Tanaka, a noted naturalist, and Dr. Tanaka remained one of Dr. Makino's most important mentors throughout his life. No doubt Dr. Makino frequently consulted the second edition of the Dictionary to help him choose the exact equivalent in Japanese terms when he was writing An Illustrated Flora of Japan.This report is based on the paper read by the writer at the regular monthly meeting on November 2, 2002.
著者
長岡 祥三
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1997, no.29, pp.1-12, 1996 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
54

Arthur Diosy was born in London in 1856. His father Martin was a Hungarian patriot who escaped to England when the revolution failed in 1849.Arthur had a great interest in Japan from his childhood, therefore he studied Japanese language and things Japanese by himself. He proposed the establishment of a society for the encouragement of Japanese studies in September of 1891. The inaugugural meeting of the Japan Society was held in April 1892, when he was nominated as honorary secretary and later became vice-chairman.He lectured about Japan many times all over the country and published a book “The New Far East” in 1898 which won great success. The following year he visited Japan with his wife for the first time, and received a great welcome from many Japanese people during their four-month-stay.He served as a chairman of the Japan Society from 1901 to 1904 and then became vice-president. He welcomed all of the royalties and eminent people of Japan who visited England with warmest hospitality until his death in 1923.
著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1987, no.19, pp.91-108, 1986-11-01 (Released:2010-02-22)
参考文献数
55

Taizo Masaki, the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (Tokyo Industrial School), is most prominently mentioned in “Yoshida Torajiro”, a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. From 1876 to 1881, Masaki was in Great Britain supervising Japanese students. In the summer of 1878, he met Stevenson at Edinburgh, and told him about the Japanese anti-Shogunate revolutionary Shoin Yoshida, who was Masaki's teacher when he was a young boy. It is not clear, however, what precisely Masaki's main work in Britain involved. In this article, his history and achievements there will be described.Masaki was born on October 24, 1846 as the third son of Jiemon Masaki, a high ranking samurai in Choshu. Choshu was a hotbed or revolutionary activity against the centralized federal Shogunate regime, and many of his family were likewise revolutionaries, later assuming a number of important roles in the Meiji Revolution. Furthermore, there were many great revolutionaries and statesmen around him including Kaoru Inoue, Takayoshi Kido and Saneomi Hirosawa. Thus, the formation of Masaki's character doubtlessly was affected by them. When he was about thirteen years old, he attended Yoshida's private school, Shokason-Juku. He became the page of Motonori Mori, the Prince of the Daimyo Lord of Choshu. The Daimyo was cut off from the progressive camp, and so Masaki acted as his mesenger.After the Meiji Revolution of 1871, Masaki was dispatched to Great Britain to study modern mintage technology. In fact, however, he studied chemistry at University College in London. At this time, he met R. W. Atkinson and invited him to go to Japan as a professor of Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. In 1874, Masaki returned to Japan with Atkinson, and worked as an assistant professor for Atkinson for about two years at Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. He taught basic chemistry, including analytical chemistry and chemical experimentation. He was the first Japanese to teach modern Western chemistry in a Japanese university.In June, 1878, Masaki went to Great Britain again as the supervisor of new students newly selected for study abroad from Tokyo Kaisei Gakko, and stayed there for 5 years. In 1881, he came back from Britain, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (presently Tokyo Institute of Technology). For nine years, he worked earnestly to establish the first Western-style industrial school in Japan. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as the consul general of Hawaii. But his life in Hawaii was not long. He returned to Japan in December 1892, and retired from public service for reasons of his health, and he died on April 5, 1896.Masaki's main accomplishment in Britain can be classified in terms of three categories. First, he took care of the Japanese students in Europe. We can read his annual reports from Britain, which describe the activities of his students. Secondly, he was able to find good teachers for new schools or universities in Japan. One of these was famous physicist Sir J. A. Ewing. In Edinburgh, along with Ewing, he also met Stevenson. It was during this time, that he gave Stevenson his account of his teacher Shoin Yoshida. Thirdly, he conducted research in the area of modern education in Europe. He worte many articles in Japanese educational journals, including translated articles or lectures and his own reports of experience in Great Britain.Taizo Masaki's achievements in Great Britain were important to education, particularly industrial education in early Meiji Era.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.39, pp.19-44, 2006 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
34

Kichijuro Narinori Nishi (1835-1891) was a 12th generation Nishi. In 1839 he was employed as pupil interpreter at the age of 4, the youngest of all the interpreters in Japanese history. Kichijuro was one of the compilers of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan (1850-1854). He was one of the interpreters to Admiral E.V. Putyatin's Russian squadron that visited Nagasaki in 1853. In 1858 he was assigned, together with Eizaemon Narabayashi, as head of Nagasaki Eigo Denshujo, an institution for the study of English. Shortly after this assignment, he was summoned to Edo to serve as an interpreter for the visits of English and Russian representatives to Edo. Subsequently, he was taken into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Tokugawa government. He acted as interpreter at the most important conferences between the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and foreign representatives in the days when Japan was opened to foreign commerce for the first time. In close cooperation with Takichiro Moriyama, he was involved in translating the related correspondences and other documents including treaties. He went to Europe as the principal interpreter of the Japanese embassy in 1864.With the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, when the Tokugawa family surrendered Edo Castle and was forced to return to Suruga (Shizuoka), their homeland, Kichijuro decided to accept the appointment to accompany the family to be in chage of the teachers of foreign languages at a school to be established there. But, in fact, it turned out that he served not as a teacher but as an administrative official.In 1871, he was taken into the Ministry of Justice of the Meiji government, where he spent the rest of his career, being promoted to President of the Supreme Court.This paper reports with special emphasis on Kichijuro's earlier half of his career, of which, to-date, little has been known. A family tree of the Nishi, from Kichibe Nishi at the beginning of the first generation in 1616 to Shigendo Nishi, the 16th contemporary generation, is presented.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1989, no.21, pp.37-60, 1988-10-01 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
40

Tsunenosuke Namura was one of the 14 lucky students of Ranald Mac-Donald, the first American who taught English to the Japanese official Dutch interpreters for about seven months while he was imprisoned at Nagasaki in 1848. Gohatiro Namura was the chief interpreter of the first Japanese embassy to the United States in 1860. He was also one of the interpreters when the treaty of peace and amity was signed between the United States and Japan in 1854 through the efforts of Commodore M. C. Perry. At that time Gohatiro already had a certain knowledge of English, and because of this, Tsunenosuke was sometimes mistaken for Gohatiro or his father Sadagoro.This paper presents the results of the author's research of the Namura genealogy. Tsunenosuke and Gohatiro were two different persons, but were descendants of the same ancestor, Hachizaemon Namura, who started to work as Dutch interpreter in 1640.The numerous achievements of the members of the Namura family not only in the international relations but also in the teaching and learning of Dutch and English languages during the period of more than 200 years are described.
著者
菊池 重郎
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1973, no.5, pp.153-168, 1972-04-30 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
11
著者
櫻井 豪人
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2002, no.34, pp.37-45, 2001 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
16
著者
松野 良寅
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1991, no.23, pp.99-113, 1990 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
27

The calamity of the siege war of Wakamatsu Castle was beyond description. A group of daring women (joshigun) fought with halberds (naginata), while some mothers, thinking they would rather kill themselves than be encumbrances to the besieged or than fall into the enemy only to be outraged by them, stabbed their children and then fell on their swords.Sutematsu, a sister of a retainer, entered the castle with her mother and sisters and survived the war. She was lucky to be chosen one of the girl students sent to America and, leading a happy life at a Puritan home, graduated from Vassar College with unprecedented honors. Soon after she came back to Japan she wrote a letter to an American friend of hers, saying : though they often say of dying for the honor of their country, I beieve it is much more difficult to live than to die for the country and what Japan needs most is a long sustained effort that can be made only by those who are anxious to serve this country.We may say that Western learning in Aizu started early in the Meiji era when Yamakawa Kenjiro and her sister Sutematsu were sent to America for learning English studies by Kaitakushi (a government agency for the development of Hokkaido).This paper concerns how English studies influenced upon Oyama Sutematsu who was typical of those women that, after living through the calamity of the siege war, led trag ical lives at their early age and eventually found a new way of living by the chance to learn and appreciate Cristianity and its culture.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.35, pp.1-15, 2002 (Released:2010-01-25)
参考文献数
13

Nishi is a most reputable family of Japanese-Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Kichibe Nishi, the 1st, began his career as interpreter in Portuguese in 1616 and then in Dutch in 1641.Kichibe Nishi (1811-1854), the 11th, was a chief compiler of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan, and his son Kichijuro (1835-1891) was also one of the compilers. The dictionary, compiled from 1851 through 1854 but unfinished, was a fruit of the government order in 1850 to study English and Russian languages and to compile an EnglishJapanese dictionary, which was the second in history after the first similar government order in 1809.In 1853 Japan faced with one of the biggest events in history, the visits of Commodore M. C. Perry and also Admiral E. V. Putyatin with their squadrons, requesting the opening of Japan, and the interpreters were forced to be involved in those events. Major compilers of the dictionary, Kichibe Nishi, Einosuke Moriyama, Eishichiro Narabayashi and Gohachiro Namura, played important parts in them as well. Kichibe Nishi was the chief of the interpreter corps to Admiral E. V. Putyatin. He was used to be assigned tasks to facilitate confidential Dutch-Japanese talks between J. H. Donker Curtius, Superintendent of the Dutch Deshima Factory, and the Governor of Nagasaki over ways to deal with the foreign powers.Although it was unfortunate that the dictionary was left unfinished under those circumstances, the efforts of the interpreters directed to their study of English were to be highly valued, since many of them made the most of their knowledge of English in their work and in teaching English. Kichibe Nishi, who took charge of their studies of English, was also an excellent teacher of Dutch to many of those interpreters in their childhood. His life, which has little been known, is described in this paper.
著者
三好 彰
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.39, pp.59-79, 2006 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
32

The first printed Dictionary of English and Japanese Languages was compiled by Hori Tatsnoskay and published in 1862, and it was revised by Horikosi Kamenoskay in 1866. The dictionary was a historical landmark in the Japanese English academia.It has been generally considered that all vocabulary entries of the dictionary had been obtained from “A new pocket dictionary of the English and Dutch languages by H. Picard, 1857 (Picard-1857)”, and the Dutch words of Picard-1857 had been translated into Japanese using several preceding dictionaries of Dutch and Japanese languages. But precise investigation of names of birds makes it clear that some English dictionaries had been used to translate names of birds into Japanese, because there are eleven groups of words in Picard-1857 whose English words that have an identical bird name in Dutch are translated in different Japanese.Moreover, Hori Tatsnoskay got three Japanese words of birds from corresponding Dutch words which have been found not in the Picard-1857, but in the Picard's dictionary of the first edition published in 1843 (Picard-1843).The dictionary revised by Horikoshi Kamenoskay has two English words of birds which are not found in either Picard-1843 or Picard-1857. Since more than half names of birds have been updated by Horikoshi Kamenoskay, the dictionary is good enough for general users.
著者
篠田 左多江
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2001, no.33, pp.105-119, 2000 (Released:2010-01-25)
参考文献数
32

Only a few ariticles and essays on Isen Kanno have been found since his death. They are Eitaro Ishigaki, “Forty-year Vagabond Life in America” (1952), Dengo Matsubara, “Baron Kanno” (1954), Shinsui Kawai, “Isen and Gertrude Kanno” (1955), Tamotsu Mirayama, “An Issei Poet Who Composed English” (1961), Ippei Nomoto, “A Vanished Star” (1973) and Ayako Ishigaki, “A Love Artist Who Crossed the Ocean” (1988). Almost all of them have no reference to Kanno's life, from his birth to death and his literary achievements.In my first essay on Isen Kanno, published in 1994, his life from birth to the days he lived in Joaquin Miller's heights were made clear. In this second essay, the latter half of his life will be revealed.In 1915 Kanno went to New York and stayed in Edwin Markham's residence. He tried to translate Markham's works into Japanese and write biography of Jack London. Reading a lot of books every day in N. Y. Public Library, he then began translating Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat into Japanese using a style of Japanese popular folk song sung in Edo Era. But to his disappointment he could not publish them. He also wrote many articles for Japanese newspaper joining the Japanese immigrants' literary group.In 1929 he and his wife, who left him and went to New York with her lover 14 years ago, finally came back to him. Kanno was very glad to be with his wife again. He went back to San Francisco with her and lived in Nichiren Church in Japan Town.Then Mr. and Mrs. Kanno went to Japan. He expected to get his works published there. His wife, sculptress, had exhibitions at some department stores in Tokyo. At that time militarism seized Japan and displaying nude statues was prohibited. Kanno made efforts to publish his works in vain. After two years they returned to the U. S.As soon as they arrived in San Francisco, his wife passed away of a sudden fever on August 14th, 1937. His beloved wife's death threw him into despair. Four months later he died of pneumonia.His manuscripts of poetry, translation and essays were kept in Nichiren Church. On December 7th, 1941, war broke out between Japan and the U. S. and Japanese Americans were forced to evacuate and sent to concentration camps. All his manuscripts were lost during this period of confusion.Isen Kanno was a determined man who made up his mind to live in the U. S. all his life, marrying to a caucasian artist and wrote in English. He was different from the most Japanese immigrants whose purpose were making money and returning to Japan as rich persons. But war prevented him from being what he expected to be.
著者
長岡 祥三
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1996, no.28, pp.57-71, 1995 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
68

Theodora was born in 1870 at London, the eldest daugher of Saburo Ozaki and his English wife Bathia Catherine Morrison. Mr. Ozaki came back to Japan, leaving his wife and three daughters in London. He later divorced Bathia according to Japanese law, but she remained his wife under the laws of England. By mutual agreement, she sent her eldest daughter Theodora to Japan to be taken care of by her father.In May of 1887, Theodora came to Japan at the age of sixteen. A few years later she became independent of her father, working as a private tutor and an English teacher at some girls' schools. In 1891 Mrs. Hugh Fraser, the wife of a British minister, sympathized with Theodora and asked her to came to the legation as her private secretary and companion.Theodora spent several happy years with Mrs. Fraser, but the latter had to go back to her home in Italy due to her husband's death in 1894. Theodora followed her the next year and enjoyed many pleasant days with her and her family. She met there Francis Marion Crawford, the well-known novelist and the brother of Mrs. Fraser. He encouraged her to write a book of fairy tales she had told sometimes in the family circle.After an absence of four years she returned to Japan at the beginning of 1899 to teach English at Keio Gijuku. Her first book “The Japanese Fairy Book” appeared in 1903 and achieved great success. She wrote three more books of old Japanese stories which also gained fine reputations.In 1905 she married the famous politician Yukio Ozaki who was the Mayor of Tokyo at that time. Thereafter she lived a happy life with him until she died from an illness at London in 1932 during her visit with her husband and her two daughters.
著者
潟岡 孝昭
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1970, no.2, pp.144-156, 1970-09-30 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
17

同志社英学校の開校当初の状態については, 既に同志社大学関係者によって詳細に述べ尽され, 現在もなお同志社社史々料編集所において調査されており, 私などの卑見を述べるべき筈のものではありますまいが, たまたまその当時の2・3の史料を見出す機会を得たので, それらを紹介すると共に卑見の一端を述べ諸賢のご指導を仰ぎたい。
著者
今井 一良
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1990, no.22, pp.1-14, 1989 (Released:2010-01-25)
参考文献数
7

In 1888 Kyoka Izumi (born Kyotaro Izumi in 1873), who failed in the entrance examination of the Fourth Higher Middle School at Kanazawa, entered a private school kept by Tajiro Inami, and was soon left in charge of English lessons there, since he had attended a missonary school (the Hokuriku Eiwa Gakko) before and was very good at English.Tajiro Inami was also known as a compiler of an English-Japanese dictionary entitled 'the Shinsen Eiwa Jiten'. This dictionary was published in 1886 from the Unkondo's which had already issued a literary magazine, 'the kinjo Shishi'.Therefore, the advertisements of sale of Inami's dictionary were put in this magazine many times, and in addition so much information concerning English learning at Kanazawa or in Tokyo was reported.In this essay, I would like to give a full detail of the following items, amplifying the above-mentioned matter : 1. Biographical Sketch of Tajiro Inami.2. On 'the Kinjo Shinshi '.3. On 'the Shinsen Eiwa Jiten'.4. Situation of English learning at Kanazawa about the middle of 1880's based on the reports in the Kinjo Shinshi.