著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1987, no.19, pp.91-108, 1986-11-01 (Released:2010-02-22)
参考文献数
55

Taizo Masaki, the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (Tokyo Industrial School), is most prominently mentioned in “Yoshida Torajiro”, a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. From 1876 to 1881, Masaki was in Great Britain supervising Japanese students. In the summer of 1878, he met Stevenson at Edinburgh, and told him about the Japanese anti-Shogunate revolutionary Shoin Yoshida, who was Masaki's teacher when he was a young boy. It is not clear, however, what precisely Masaki's main work in Britain involved. In this article, his history and achievements there will be described.Masaki was born on October 24, 1846 as the third son of Jiemon Masaki, a high ranking samurai in Choshu. Choshu was a hotbed or revolutionary activity against the centralized federal Shogunate regime, and many of his family were likewise revolutionaries, later assuming a number of important roles in the Meiji Revolution. Furthermore, there were many great revolutionaries and statesmen around him including Kaoru Inoue, Takayoshi Kido and Saneomi Hirosawa. Thus, the formation of Masaki's character doubtlessly was affected by them. When he was about thirteen years old, he attended Yoshida's private school, Shokason-Juku. He became the page of Motonori Mori, the Prince of the Daimyo Lord of Choshu. The Daimyo was cut off from the progressive camp, and so Masaki acted as his mesenger.After the Meiji Revolution of 1871, Masaki was dispatched to Great Britain to study modern mintage technology. In fact, however, he studied chemistry at University College in London. At this time, he met R. W. Atkinson and invited him to go to Japan as a professor of Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. In 1874, Masaki returned to Japan with Atkinson, and worked as an assistant professor for Atkinson for about two years at Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. He taught basic chemistry, including analytical chemistry and chemical experimentation. He was the first Japanese to teach modern Western chemistry in a Japanese university.In June, 1878, Masaki went to Great Britain again as the supervisor of new students newly selected for study abroad from Tokyo Kaisei Gakko, and stayed there for 5 years. In 1881, he came back from Britain, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (presently Tokyo Institute of Technology). For nine years, he worked earnestly to establish the first Western-style industrial school in Japan. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as the consul general of Hawaii. But his life in Hawaii was not long. He returned to Japan in December 1892, and retired from public service for reasons of his health, and he died on April 5, 1896.Masaki's main accomplishment in Britain can be classified in terms of three categories. First, he took care of the Japanese students in Europe. We can read his annual reports from Britain, which describe the activities of his students. Secondly, he was able to find good teachers for new schools or universities in Japan. One of these was famous physicist Sir J. A. Ewing. In Edinburgh, along with Ewing, he also met Stevenson. It was during this time, that he gave Stevenson his account of his teacher Shoin Yoshida. Thirdly, he conducted research in the area of modern education in Europe. He worte many articles in Japanese educational journals, including translated articles or lectures and his own reports of experience in Great Britain.Taizo Masaki's achievements in Great Britain were important to education, particularly industrial education in early Meiji Era.
著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1989, no.21, pp.91-111, 1988-10-01 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
72

Taizo Masaki is most prominently mentioned in “Yoshida Torajiro”, a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. After the Meiji Restoration, he was dispatched to Great Britain twice from 1871 to 1881, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (now Tokyo Institute of Technology). He worked earnestly for industrial education for nearly twenty years in the early years of Meiji Era. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as consul in Hawaii. After one year, he was promoted to consul general. He stayed in Honolulu for 2 years and a half, however, his activities in Hawaii were not made clear yet. In this article, various kinds of documents between Japanese Foreign Office and Consul Masaki were studied, and the present writers tried to learn from them how he acted as Hawaiian consul.The diplomatic relation between Japan and Hawaii Kingdom began in 1860. It continued only 40 years, because of the Hawaiian revolution in 1893 and the annexation by the U.S.A. The largest pending problem of both countries was the immigration for the sugar beet farms from Japan. As sugar was the main product of Hawaii, the sugar beet farms needed a large number of workers. On the other hand, Japanese agricultural villages were in a long depression after the Meiji Restoration. After short preliminary negotiations, both governments arrived at an agreement that Japan would supply round numbers of immigrants for Hawaiian sugar farms periodically. In 1884, the Japanese consulate was opened at Honolulu, and the first ship “the City of Tokyo” carried 948 emigrants to Hawaii in 1885. This emigration organized by the Japanese government continued for ten years, and 29, 139 Japanese emigrants voyaged to Hawaii as often as 26 times. As the government-sponsored emigration brought about many conflicts, various kinds of troubles occurred.Taizo Masaki made a voyage to Honolulu as the fourth consul in May, 1890. It was the peak period of governmental emigration, and more than twelve thousand emigrants voyaged.There are many documents, and correspondance archives referring to Hawaii in the Diplomatic Record Office. We can infer the activities of Taizo Masaki in Hawaii as consul. The most important business of the Hawaiian consulate was the remittance of immigrants to their family in Japan. Because there was no branch of a Japanese bank in those early years, it was very difficult. Masaki invited a new branch of Yokohama Shokin Bank to Honolulu for Japanese immigrants. The remittance to Japan became easier.Masaki sent many formal annd informal reports which included important information. One of them referred to the suffrage of immigrants. The Hawaiian constitution amended in 1887, approved the right to vote of those other than American or European immigrants. Masaki gave a report on the historical situation and pointed out those problems. The other important reports were referring to the political change of the Hawaiian Government. In those days, the political situation in Hawaii was very unstable; therefore, coups d'état and reorganizations of the cabinet were done frequently. Masaki's reports described the circumstances of the changes of Hawaiian government and his opinions about them. His final report was dated Nov. 9, 1892, because he returned to Japan in December. It was only one month before the Hawaiian Kingdom collapsed and transferred to the republic form of government.The analysis in this article is not enough; a more detailed examination will be reported in the following articles. The other documents of Taizo Masaki referring to many other items will be introduced, too.In the meantime, Robert Louis Stevenson was making a tour of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, and visited Hawaii at least twice. We have much interest in the question whether the two old friends could meet again or not.
著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.21, pp.91-111, 1989
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Taizo Masaki is most prominently mentioned in "Yoshida Torajiro", a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. After the Meiji Restoration, he was dispatched to Great Britain twice from 1871 to 1881, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (now Tokyo Institute of Technology). He worked earnestly for industrial education for nearly twenty years in the early years of Meiji Era. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as consul in Hawaii. After one year, he was promoted to consul general. He stayed in Honolulu for 2 years and a half, however, his activities in Hawaii were not made clear yet. In this article, various kinds of documents between Japanese Foreign Office and Consul Masaki were studied, and the present writers tried to learn from them how he acted as Hawaiian consul.<br>The diplomatic relation between Japan and Hawaii Kingdom began in 1860. It continued only 40 years, because of the Hawaiian revolution in 1893 and the annexation by the U.S.A. The largest pending problem of both countries was the immigration for the sugar beet farms from Japan. As sugar was the main product of Hawaii, the sugar beet farms needed a large number of workers. On the other hand, Japanese agricultural villages were in a long depression after the Meiji Restoration. After short preliminary negotiations, both governments arrived at an agreement that Japan would supply round numbers of immigrants for Hawaiian sugar farms periodically. In 1884, the Japanese consulate was opened at Honolulu, and the first ship "the City of Tokyo" carried 948 emigrants to Hawaii in 1885. This emigration organized by the Japanese government continued for ten years, and 29, 139 Japanese emigrants voyaged to Hawaii as often as 26 times. As the government-sponsored emigration brought about many conflicts, various kinds of troubles occurred.<br>Taizo Masaki made a voyage to Honolulu as the fourth consul in May, 1890. It was the peak period of governmental emigration, and more than twelve thousand emigrants voyaged.<br>There are many documents, and correspondance archives referring to Hawaii in the Diplomatic Record Office. We can infer the activities of Taizo Masaki in Hawaii as consul. The most important business of the Hawaiian consulate was the remittance of immigrants to their family in Japan. Because there was no branch of a Japanese bank in those early years, it was very difficult. Masaki invited a new branch of Yokohama Shokin Bank to Honolulu for Japanese immigrants. The remittance to Japan became easier.<br>Masaki sent many formal annd informal reports which included important information. One of them referred to the suffrage of immigrants. The Hawaiian constitution amended in 1887, approved the right to vote of those other than American or European immigrants. Masaki gave a report on the historical situation and pointed out those problems. The other important reports were referring to the political change of the Hawaiian Government. In those days, the political situation in Hawaii was very unstable; therefore, coups d'état and reorganizations of the cabinet were done frequently. Masaki's reports described the circumstances of the changes of Hawaiian government and his opinions about them. His final report was dated Nov. 9, 1892, because he returned to Japan in December. It was only one month before the Hawaiian Kingdom collapsed and transferred to the republic form of government.<br>The analysis in this article is not enough; a more detailed examination will be reported in the following articles. The other documents of Taizo Masaki referring to many other items will be introduced, too.<br>In the meantime, Robert Louis Stevenson was making a tour of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, and visited Hawaii at least twice. We have much interest in the question whether the two old friends could meet again or not.
著者
沼倉 研史 沼倉 満帆
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.91-108, 1987
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Taizo Masaki, the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (Tokyo Industrial School), is most prominently mentioned in "Yoshida Torajiro", a short story by Robert Louis Stevenson. From 1876 to 1881, Masaki was in Great Britain supervising Japanese students. In the summer of 1878, he met Stevenson at Edinburgh, and told him about the Japanese anti-Shogunate revolutionary Shoin Yoshida, who was Masaki's teacher when he was a young boy. It is not clear, however, what precisely Masaki's main work in Britain involved. In this article, his history and achievements there will be described.<BR>Masaki was born on October 24, 1846 as the third son of Jiemon Masaki, a high ranking samurai in Choshu. Choshu was a hotbed or revolutionary activity against the centralized federal Shogunate regime, and many of his family were likewise revolutionaries, later assuming a number of important roles in the Meiji Revolution. Furthermore, there were many great revolutionaries and statesmen around him including Kaoru Inoue, Takayoshi Kido and Saneomi Hirosawa. Thus, the formation of Masaki's character doubtlessly was affected by them. When he was about thirteen years old, he attended Yoshida's private school, Shokason-Juku. He became the page of Motonori Mori, the Prince of the Daimyo Lord of Choshu. The Daimyo was cut off from the progressive camp, and so Masaki acted as his mesenger.<BR>After the Meiji Revolution of 1871, Masaki was dispatched to Great Britain to study modern mintage technology. In fact, however, he studied chemistry at University College in London. At this time, he met R. W. Atkinson and invited him to go to Japan as a professor of Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. In 1874, Masaki returned to Japan with Atkinson, and worked as an assistant professor for Atkinson for about two years at Tokyo Kaisei Gakko. He taught basic chemistry, including analytical chemistry and chemical experimentation. He was the first Japanese to teach modern Western chemistry in a Japanese university.<BR>In June, 1878, Masaki went to Great Britain again as the supervisor of new students newly selected for study abroad from Tokyo Kaisei Gakko, and stayed there for 5 years. In 1881, he came back from Britain, and became the first president of Tokyo Shokko Gakko (presently Tokyo Institute of Technology). For nine years, he worked earnestly to establish the first Western-style industrial school in Japan. In 1890, Masaki was transferred to the Foreign Office, and went to Honolulu as the consul general of Hawaii. But his life in Hawaii was not long. He returned to Japan in December 1892, and retired from public service for reasons of his health, and he died on April 5, 1896.<BR>Masaki's main accomplishment in Britain can be classified in terms of three categories. First, he took care of the Japanese students in Europe. We can read his annual reports from Britain, which describe the activities of his students. Secondly, he was able to find good teachers for new schools or universities in Japan. One of these was famous physicist Sir J. A. Ewing. In Edinburgh, along with Ewing, he also met Stevenson. It was during this time, that he gave Stevenson his account of his teacher Shoin Yoshida. Thirdly, he conducted research in the area of modern education in Europe. He worte many articles in Japanese educational journals, including translated articles or lectures and his own reports of experience in Great Britain.<BR>Taizo Masaki's achievements in Great Britain were important to education, particularly industrial education in early Meiji Era.