著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.85-101, 1993

The Tokugawas established the School Fuchu (Shizuoka) Gakumonjo in Suruga in the autumn of 1868 as their major undertaking after the debacle of the Shogunate. In straitened circumstances they found a gleam of light in educa-tion for their future.<BR>Gohachiro Namura was the head of the professors of English at this school. Unfortunately, however, we seldom come across his name as such in the litera-ture concerning the school. Instead, the name of Taizo Namura, who has nothing to do with the school, is often seen as a professor at the school. There are cases where Taizo's personal history is mistaken for Gohachiro's, or, vice versa.<BR>In this paper, the causes of this confusion are discussed, and personal his-tories of Gohachiro and Taizo are presented. Gohachiro was a son of Hachiemon Namura, a very able official Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Taizo is said to have become a stepson of Hachiemon. Both Gohachiro and Taizo learnd Dutch and worked as Dutch intepreters at Nagasaki in the beginning, and they learned English and other foreign languages in addition, which made them indispensa-ble persons for modernization of Japan.<BR>Gohachiro was one of the Japanese who studied and taught English earliest in Japan : he was one of the compilers of an English and Japanese dictionary, 1851-1854 (uncompleted), the second English and Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan. He was one of the interpreters when the Treaty of Peace and Amity was signed between the United States and Japan in 1854. He served as the chief interpreter of the first Japanese embassy to the United States in 1860, and also of the Japanese embassy to Russia in 1866.<BR>Taizo was known for his ability in French. He was appointed an interpreter for a group of French technical instructors and workers for the construction of an iron foundary in Yokohama in 1862. He went to France to work for an International Exhibition at Paris in 1867, which Japan took part in for the first time. After the Restoration of 1868 he was employed by the new government at Nagasaki, where he taught French at a language institute transmitted to the new government. He entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tokyo in 1869. He moved to the Ministry of Justice in 1872. He was appointed as an Acting President of the Supreme Court in 1892, and as a member of the House of Peers in 1894. One of his most important contribution was, perhaps, the introduction of French law into Japan, serving as an interpreter and assistant for a famous French professor in law, Dr. Gustave Emile Boissonade de Fontarabie (1825-1910).<BR>The confusion between Gohachiro and Taizo was originated in a simple mistake in a paper published in 1917, where the author wrote "Gohachiro (Taizo) Namura", in his judgement that Taizo must have been Gohachiro's later name. Then, another authour, in his book published in 1934, noted just "Taizo Namura" in the list of professors at the school. Because this book is one of the basic books in the field, the confusion has been handed down to many other authors.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2007, no.39, pp.19-44, 2006 (Released:2009-09-16)
参考文献数
34

Kichijuro Narinori Nishi (1835-1891) was a 12th generation Nishi. In 1839 he was employed as pupil interpreter at the age of 4, the youngest of all the interpreters in Japanese history. Kichijuro was one of the compilers of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan (1850-1854). He was one of the interpreters to Admiral E.V. Putyatin's Russian squadron that visited Nagasaki in 1853. In 1858 he was assigned, together with Eizaemon Narabayashi, as head of Nagasaki Eigo Denshujo, an institution for the study of English. Shortly after this assignment, he was summoned to Edo to serve as an interpreter for the visits of English and Russian representatives to Edo. Subsequently, he was taken into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Tokugawa government. He acted as interpreter at the most important conferences between the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and foreign representatives in the days when Japan was opened to foreign commerce for the first time. In close cooperation with Takichiro Moriyama, he was involved in translating the related correspondences and other documents including treaties. He went to Europe as the principal interpreter of the Japanese embassy in 1864.With the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, when the Tokugawa family surrendered Edo Castle and was forced to return to Suruga (Shizuoka), their homeland, Kichijuro decided to accept the appointment to accompany the family to be in chage of the teachers of foreign languages at a school to be established there. But, in fact, it turned out that he served not as a teacher but as an administrative official.In 1871, he was taken into the Ministry of Justice of the Meiji government, where he spent the rest of his career, being promoted to President of the Supreme Court.This paper reports with special emphasis on Kichijuro's earlier half of his career, of which, to-date, little has been known. A family tree of the Nishi, from Kichibe Nishi at the beginning of the first generation in 1616 to Shigendo Nishi, the 16th contemporary generation, is presented.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1989, no.21, pp.37-60, 1988-10-01 (Released:2010-08-10)
参考文献数
40

Tsunenosuke Namura was one of the 14 lucky students of Ranald Mac-Donald, the first American who taught English to the Japanese official Dutch interpreters for about seven months while he was imprisoned at Nagasaki in 1848. Gohatiro Namura was the chief interpreter of the first Japanese embassy to the United States in 1860. He was also one of the interpreters when the treaty of peace and amity was signed between the United States and Japan in 1854 through the efforts of Commodore M. C. Perry. At that time Gohatiro already had a certain knowledge of English, and because of this, Tsunenosuke was sometimes mistaken for Gohatiro or his father Sadagoro.This paper presents the results of the author's research of the Namura genealogy. Tsunenosuke and Gohatiro were two different persons, but were descendants of the same ancestor, Hachizaemon Namura, who started to work as Dutch interpreter in 1640.The numerous achievements of the members of the Namura family not only in the international relations but also in the teaching and learning of Dutch and English languages during the period of more than 200 years are described.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.1-15, 2002
被引用文献数
0 or 1

Nishi is a most reputable family of Japanese-Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Kichibe Nishi, the 1st, began his career as interpreter in Portuguese in 1616 and then in Dutch in 1641.<BR>Kichibe Nishi (1811-1854), the 11th, was a chief compiler of <I>Egeresugo Jisho Wage</I>, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan, and his son Kichijuro (1835-1891) was also one of the compilers. The dictionary, compiled from 1851 through 1854 but unfinished, was a fruit of the government order in 1850 to study English and Russian languages and to compile an EnglishJapanese dictionary, which was the second in history after the first similar government order in 1809.<BR>In 1853 Japan faced with one of the biggest events in history, the visits of Commodore M. C. Perry and also Admiral E. V. Putyatin with their squadrons, requesting the opening of Japan, and the interpreters were forced to be involved in those events. Major compilers of the dictionary, Kichibe Nishi, Einosuke Moriyama, Eishichiro Narabayashi and Gohachiro Namura, played important parts in them as well. Kichibe Nishi was the chief of the interpreter corps to Admiral E. V. Putyatin. He was used to be assigned tasks to facilitate confidential Dutch-Japanese talks between J. H. <I>Donker Curtius</I>, Superintendent of the Dutch Deshima Factory, and the Governor of Nagasaki over ways to deal with the foreign powers.<BR>Although it was unfortunate that the dictionary was left unfinished under those circumstances, the efforts of the interpreters directed to their study of English were to be highly valued, since many of them made the most of their knowledge of English in their work and in teaching English. Kichibe Nishi, who took charge of their studies of English, was also an excellent teacher of Dutch to many of those interpreters in their childhood. His life, which has little been known, is described in this paper.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
日本英学史学会
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.35, pp.1-15, 2002 (Released:2010-01-25)
参考文献数
13

Nishi is a most reputable family of Japanese-Dutch interpreter at Nagasaki. Kichibe Nishi, the 1st, began his career as interpreter in Portuguese in 1616 and then in Dutch in 1641.Kichibe Nishi (1811-1854), the 11th, was a chief compiler of Egeresugo Jisho Wage, the second English-Japanese dictionary compiled in Japan, and his son Kichijuro (1835-1891) was also one of the compilers. The dictionary, compiled from 1851 through 1854 but unfinished, was a fruit of the government order in 1850 to study English and Russian languages and to compile an EnglishJapanese dictionary, which was the second in history after the first similar government order in 1809.In 1853 Japan faced with one of the biggest events in history, the visits of Commodore M. C. Perry and also Admiral E. V. Putyatin with their squadrons, requesting the opening of Japan, and the interpreters were forced to be involved in those events. Major compilers of the dictionary, Kichibe Nishi, Einosuke Moriyama, Eishichiro Narabayashi and Gohachiro Namura, played important parts in them as well. Kichibe Nishi was the chief of the interpreter corps to Admiral E. V. Putyatin. He was used to be assigned tasks to facilitate confidential Dutch-Japanese talks between J. H. Donker Curtius, Superintendent of the Dutch Deshima Factory, and the Governor of Nagasaki over ways to deal with the foreign powers.Although it was unfortunate that the dictionary was left unfinished under those circumstances, the efforts of the interpreters directed to their study of English were to be highly valued, since many of them made the most of their knowledge of English in their work and in teaching English. Kichibe Nishi, who took charge of their studies of English, was also an excellent teacher of Dutch to many of those interpreters in their childhood. His life, which has little been known, is described in this paper.
著者
石原 千里
出版者
Historical Society of English Studies in Japan
雑誌
英学史研究 (ISSN:03869490)
巻号頁・発行日
no.33, pp.13-27, 2000

Based on the extracts of 4 letters in the <I>Spirit of Missions</I> quoted from the <I>New York Journal of Commerce</I>, the author has already reported on the teaching of English by Henry Wood, and pointed out his great contribution to the history of both Christianity and English studies in Japan.<BR>The present paper deals mainly with the study of 3 out of the 4 letters in the <I>New York Journal of Commerce</I>, for which Henry Wood acted as a correspondent during his service on the U. S. Ship Powhatan. He also sent many letters on other subjects. The 3 letters concerned here contained important information unquoted in the <I>Spirit of Missions</I>. Some examples are as follows. Each of the 3 letters was headed "MY SCHOOL AND (MY) SCHOLARS IN JAPAN." With no knowledge of Dutch or Japanese, Wood utilized some English-Dutch dictionaries and one or two Dutch-Japanese dictionaries, and also used the primitive language-the language of signs-to define particular words. He was confident that the Japanese were hopeful for Christianity, and that the method of conducting them to Christianity, under its prohibition, would be by teaching them English.<BR>Henry Wood was born on April 10, 1796, in Louden, NH. He received a Master of Arts degree from Dartmouth College in 1822, and was a tutor at Dartmouth College in 1822-23. After studying divinity at Princeton Theological Seminary for about one year in 1823-24, he was a senior tutor of Latin and Greek at Hampden-Sydney College in 1824-25. He was ordained in the Congregational Church in 1826 and in the Presbyterian Church before 1856. He was U. S. Consul at Beirut, Syria from 1853-56. He was commissioned Chaplain of U. S. Navy on September 11, 1856. He was on the U. S. Ship Powhatan in the Chinese and Japanese seas in 1858-60. In 1858 he sent two letters to the authority of the Reformed Dutch Church of the United States, appealing to establish its mission at Nagasaki. He taught English to the Japanese at Nagasaki in 1858 and on the Powhatan in 1860. He was stationed at the Naval Asylum in Philadelphia in 1863. He died in Philadelphia on October 9, 1873.