著者
Tatsuya Takahashi Minouk Schoemaker Klaus Trott Steven Simon Keisei Fujimori Noriaki Nakashima Akira Fukao Hiroshi Saito
出版者
日本疫学会
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.99-107, 2003 (Released:2007-11-30)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
18 25

The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3, 709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. J Epidemiol2003;13:99-107.
著者
Mami Ishikuro Sergio Ramón Gutiérrez Ubeda Taku Obara Toshihide Saga Naofumi Tanaka Chiyo Oikawa Keisei Fujimori
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.243, no.3, pp.195-203, 2017 (Released:2017-11-28)
参考文献数
16

Patient falls are common adverse medical events in hospitals. The objectives of this study were to clarify the factors of patient falls at hospitalization or transfer to another ward, which could be assumed that patients experience new environment. Patients who were hospitalized or transferred to another ward at a hospital in Japan, between January 14 and February 14, 2014 were included. We used a risk assessment sheet and applied stepwise regression analysis to identify factors of patient falls. We also investigated changes in patient conditions on the risk assessment sheet by the chi-square test. A total of 1,362 patients (53.2% female; mean age, 57.1 ± 18.0 years) were eligible for analysis, and 38 (2.8%) fell during the study period. The fallers were significantly older than the non-fallers (63.8 ± 18.0 vs. 56.9 ± 18.7 years, P = 0.03), but no significant difference was seen in sex (55.3% vs. 53.1% female). “History of falls”, “Tubes inserted”, “Need assistance/supervision for toileting” and “Excretion more than two times per night” were significantly related to patient falls (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval]: 2.41 [1.05-5.53], 3.64 [1.57-8.43], 4.52 [2.00-10.23] and 3.92 [1.38-11.09]). Among 30 fallers, “Overestimation or non-understanding of own physical abilities” was significantly more frequent after falls (30.0%) than before falls (6.7%, P = 0.02). The factors found in this study might be useful for identifying patients at higher risk of falls.