著者
Nasser Malekpour Alamdari Siamak Afaghi Fatemeh Sadat Rahimi Farzad Esmaeili Tarki Sasan Tavana Alireza Zali Mohammad Fathi Sara Besharat Leyla Bagheri Fatemeh Pourmotahari Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Ali Dabbagh Seyed Ali Mousavi
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.252, no.1, pp.73-84, 2020 (Released:2020-09-09)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
8 31

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed many people worldwide since December 2019, and Iran has been among the most affected countries. In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients by analyzing 396 survived and 63 non-survived patients in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from January 30th until April 5th, 2020. As the results, the BMI > 35 (p = 0.0003), lung cancer (p = 0.007), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.002), Immunocompromised condition (p = 0.003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) were more frequently observed in the expired group. The history of statins use was more common in the discharged group (p = 0.002), while there was no significant difference in the drug history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, and/or steroids, and in the past-year influenza vaccination. Multivariable regression demonstrated rising odds of in-hospital death related with age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.055, p = 0.002), levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 2.915, p < 0.001), creatinine (OR = 1.740, p = 0.023), lymphocyte count (OR = 0.999, p = 0.008), and magnesium level (OR = 0.032, p < 0.001) on admission. In conclusion, the patients with older age and higher BMI with lymphopenia, hypomagnesemia, elevated CRP and/or raised creatinine on admission are at higher risk of mortality due to the COVID-19 infection, which requires the physicians to use timely and strong therapeutic measures for such patients.
著者
Ming Zhou Hongwen Ji Nian Fu Linxi Chen Yong Xia
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.244, no.2, pp.175, 2018 (Released:2018-02-22)
被引用文献数
1

Retracted Review article: Nucleophagy in Human Disease: Beyond the Physiological Role. [Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2018, 244 (1), 75-81. doi: 10.1620/tjem.244.75.]The above Review article was published online on January 27, 2018. Soon after its publication (on February 1, 2018), Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen informed the Editor-in-Chief, The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), about serious violation of publication ethics. Indeed, Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen were astonished to find their names as coauthors of this Review article, because they were not involved in the submission process of this Review article and they do not know any of other coauthors. In addition, the Review article is similar to their unpublished manuscript. After a thorough investigation in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Editor-in-Chief of TJEM decided to retract this Review article. The reasons for Retraction are summarized below: forged authors and an unexpected case of plagiarism. Forged authors: Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen were added as co-authors of the Review article without their knowledge. In fact, the signature provided by Prof. Linxi Chen is apparently different from the signature of a coauthor, named Linxi Chen, on the AUTHORS’ RESPONSIBILITY FORM, provided by the corresponding author of the Review article. More critically, the signature provided by Dr. Nian Fu is completely different from the signature of Nian Fu, because the Chinese characters are different between the two signatures. In addition, the replies from three authors (Ming Zhou, Hongwen Ji and Yong Xia) clearly indicate that they misunderstand the identity of Dr. Nina Fu. We also attempted to contact two authors, named Nian Fu and Linxi Chen, via e-mail. As expected, the forged authors did not respond to our inquiries, despite that their e-mail addresses appear to be active. An unexpected case of plagiarism: This Review article is similar to the unpublished manuscript prepared by Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen. Moreover, two figures used in the Review article are identical to the preliminary figures of their unpublished manuscript. According to Dr. Nian Fu, a local agency for language editing had transferred their unpublished manuscript to a third party. Unfortunately, the check system of TJEM is not effective for plagiarism of unpublished materials. We believe that the corresponding author of the Review article included the names of the original two authors to avoid the criticism of plagiarism. Eventually, the corresponding author agreed to retract the Review article.We apologize for any inconvenience caused by this retraction to readers. We also hope that the publication of the plagiarized Review article will not trouble Dr. Nian Fu and Prof. Linxi Chen too much.
著者
Nobuyoshi Ozawa Kiyoshi Ito Toru Tase Daisuke Shibuya Hirohito Metoki Nobuo Yaegashi
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.243, no.4, pp.329-334, 2017 (Released:2017-12-20)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
7

The Japanese national immunization programme for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) started in 2010. Vaccination rates increased up to 70% in women in the 1996-1999 birth. However, the proactive recommendation for HPV vaccine was suspended in 2013, following repeated media reports of adverse events. Vaccination rates plumped to less than 1% in women born since 2002. In this study, incidence of abnormal cytology and histology was examined in terms of HPV vaccination among 5,924 women aged 20 to 24 years in the fiscal year (FY) 2014 and 2015. The total rate of vaccination was 16.9% (1,002/5,924). In case of FY 2015, the rates of vaccination were 59.26%, 49.68%, 11.97%, 9.08%, and 4.58% in those aged 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 years old, respectively. The rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse were 0.20% (2/1,002) in women with HPV vaccination and 1.14% (56/4,922) in those without HPV vaccination, indicating a significant reduction of 82.46% with vaccination (P < 0.0001). The rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1+ were 0.80% (8/1,002) in women with vaccination and 2.28% (112/4,922) in those without vaccination. The reduction rate of CIN1+ was 64.91% (P = 0.0025). The rates of CIN2+ were 0.10% (1/1,002) with vaccination and 0.69% (34/4,922) without vaccination. The reduction rate of CIN2+ was 85.51% (P = 0.0261). Our data are the first to demonstrate a significant reduction of CIN2+ cases in an Asian population. Scientific discussion is needed to restart the proactive recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.
著者
Takashi Ohrui
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.207, no.1, pp.3-12, 2005 (Released:2005-08-04)
参考文献数
87
被引用文献数
42 41

Pneumonia is the fourth leading cause of death despite the availability of potent new antimicrobials in Japan. Aspiration of oropharyngeal bacterial pathogens to the lower respiratory tract is one of the most important risk factors for pneumonia. Impairments in swallowing and cough reflexes among disabled older persons, e.g., related to cerebrovascular disease, increase the risk of pneumonia. Thus, strategies to reduce the volumes and pathogenicity of aspirated material should be pursued. Since both swallowing and cough reflexes are mediated by endogenous substance P contained in the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves, pharmacologic therapy using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which decrease substance P catabolism, can improve both reflexes and result in the lowering of the risk of pneumonia. Similarly, since the production of substance P is regulated by dopaminergic neurons in the cerebral basal ganglia, treatment with dopamine analogs or potentiating drugs such as amantadine can reduce the incidence of pneumonia. Furthermore, since mortality from infections correlates with cutaneous anergy, interventions that reverse these age-associated changes in the immune system are also effective. The main theme of this review is to discuss how pneumonia develops in disabled older people and to suggest preventive strategies that may reduce the incidence of pneumonia among these subjects.
著者
Mie Kazama Keiko Maruyama Kazutoshi Nakamura
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.236, no.2, pp.107-113, 2015 (Released:2015-05-29)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
23 34

Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend < 0.001). In addition, short sleeping hours (< 6/day) were associated with moderate-severe dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.
著者
Siamak Afaghi Farzad Esmaeili Tarki Fatemeh Sadat Rahimi Sara Besharat Shayda Mirhaidari Anita Karimi Nasser Malekpour Alamdari
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.255, no.2, pp.127-134, 2021 (Released:2021-10-12)
参考文献数
40

Vitamin D attenuates inflammatory responses to viral respiratory infections. Hence, vitamin D deficiency may be a highly significant prognostic factor for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. To evaluate the complications and mortality in different vitamin D status groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, we conducted this retrospective study on 646 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 16th March 2020 until 25th February 2021. Overall, patients with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency were 16.9%, 43.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The presence of comorbidity, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement and overall complications were significantly more in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p-value < 0.001). 46.8% (51/109) of vitamin D deficient patients died due to the disease, whilst the mortality rate among insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups was 29.4% (83/282) and 5.5% (14/255), respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 60 years (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1), presence of comorbidity (OR = 10.7), insufficient vitamin D status (OR = 7.2), and deficient vitamin D status (OR = 15.1) were associated with increase in COVID-19 mortality (p-value < 0.001). Finally, the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities indicated vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.3, p-value = 0.002). Vitamin D deficiency is a strong risk factor for mortality and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D supplementation may be able to prevent or improve the prognosis of COVID-19 during this pandemic.
著者
JongEun Yim
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.239, no.3, pp.243-249, 2016 (Released:2016-07-16)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
22 39

In modern society, fierce competition and socioeconomic interaction stress the quality of life, causing a negative influence on a person’s mental health. Laughter is a positive sensation, and seems to be a useful and healthy way to overcome stress. Laughter therapy is a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapies that could make physical, psychological, and social relationships healthy, ultimately improving the quality of life. Laughter therapy, as a non-pharmacological, alternative treatment, has a positive effect on the mental health and the immune system. In addition, laughter therapy does not require specialized preparations, such as suitable facilities and equipment, and it is easily accessible and acceptable. For these reasons, the medical community has taken notice and attempted to include laughter therapy to more traditional therapies. Decreasing stress-making hormones found in the blood, laughter can mitigate the effects of stress. Laughter decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (a major dopamine catabolite), indicating a reversal of the stress response. Depression is a disease, where neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, are reduced, and there is something wrong in the mood control circuit of the brain. Laughter can alter dopamine and serotonin activity. Furthermore, endorphins secreted by laughter can help when people are uncomfortable or in a depressed mood. Laughter therapy is a noninvasive and non-pharmacological alternative treatment for stress and depression, representative cases that have a negative influence on mental health. In conclusion, laughter therapy is effective and scientifically supported as a single or adjuvant therapy.
著者
Yukiko Kurosawa Koji Hara Haruka Tohara Chizuru Namiki Ariya Chantaramanee Ayako Nakane Kazuharu Nakagawa Kohei Yamaguchi Kanako Yoshimi Junichi Furuya Shunsuke Minakuchi
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.248, no.3, pp.201-208, 2019 (Released:2019-07-30)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
2

Dysphagia is a common problem among older adults, causing aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. It has been reported that calf circumference (CC), an index of nutritional status and physical activity, correlated with dysphagia in acute care hospitals, suggesting that CC can be a useful index for assessing dysphagia. We therefore aimed to explore the association between dysphagia and CC among community elderly people who require long-term care and determined the optimal CC cut-off value for patients with dysphagia. Our cross-sectional study, conducted at Tokyo Metropolis, included 154 participants (65 men) aged > 65 years (mean age: 80.1 ± 7.1) who required long-term care and were examined for dental disease and dysphagia during home visiting treatment. Age, body mass index (BMI), mini-nutritional assessment short-form (MNA-SF) score, Barthel index (BI), CC, functional oral intake scale (FOIS), and dysphagia severity scale (DSS) were evaluated. A DSS score < 5 was defined as dysphagia. To determine the association between CC and dysphagia, we performed logistic regression analysis and calculated the CC cut-off value for dysphagia. Thirty-seven participants (24.0%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. The logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of dysphagia was independently associated with CC after adjusting for age and sex. The CC cut-off value for the presence of dysphagia was 31.0 cm in men (sensitivity, 0.818; specificity, 0.868) and 29.3 cm in women (sensitivity, 0.760; specificity, 0.859). CC is a useful index for assessing dysphagia among community dwelling individuals who require long-term care.
著者
Farah Hanan Fathihah Jaffar Khairul Osman Nur Hilwani Ismail Kok-Yong Chin Siti Fatimah Ibrahim
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.248, no.3, pp.169-179, 2019 (Released:2019-07-26)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
11

Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: ‘Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation’ AND ‘sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction’ had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.
著者
Yasuko Tomizawa
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.248, no.3, pp.151-158, 2019 (Released:2019-07-04)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
3

Japan is still a patriarchal society. There is an increasing number of female doctors who wish to follow a career path in surgery. This new generation of female surgeons need support not only in their career but also in work-life balance, especially after they have a family. We founded the Japan Association of Women Surgeons (JAWS) with the aims to advance females in surgery by providing networking and to develop leadership, mentorship, education, expertise and advocacy. This article describes our philosophy and activities, and our concept of role modeling. To find a single perfect role model is impossible in Japan, because lifestyle and family situations are quite different among individuals. Many young doctors in Japan find difficulties in identifying role models appropriate to their own situations. Our concept of remote role modeling is to identify multiple outstanding persons with excellent roles that one wishes to emulate; classify them by field of work, lifestyle, family situations, and others; then select the parts that one needs and assemble them to customize one’s own ideal role model. This type of role modeling is probably the most practical approach. While modern technology is good for communication, meeting role models in person at meetings and social occasions is important in building an ideal role model.
著者
Michio Murakami Yoshitake Takebayashi Masaharu Tsubokura
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.247, no.1, pp.13-17, 2019 (Released:2019-01-11)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
16

Psychological distress has become a serious health risk after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Although, following the lifting of evacuation orders, the affected people have started returning home, their current status of psychological distress has not been reported yet. Here, we report the levels of psychological distress in both returnees and evacuees by using a K6 indicator. In January 2018, questionnaires were randomly distributed among 2,000 people, aged 20 to 79 years old, who were registered on the Basic Resident Register in the evacuation order areas of nine municipalities where residents have now started returning home. The total number of participants was 625. The returnees showed a significantly better psychological distress status than the evacuees. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) among the returnees (reference = evacuees), estimated from a logistic analysis by using age, sex, and annual income as covariates, were 0.525 (0.325-0.846) for K6 ≥ 10 and 0.444 (0.216-0.911) for K6 ≥ 13. The prevalence of K6 ≥ 10 in the returnees when adjusted by the age and sex distribution of the whole of Japan was 16.2%, higher than the value (10.3%) at 20 to 79 years old in the whole of Japan. Psychological distress among the evacuees is an urgent problem to be resolved, and social support is still necessary for the returnees. Long term follow-up of returnees, investigations of causality between return and psychological distress and its governing factors in each of the evacuee and returnee groups are required for the implementation of effective countermeasures.
著者
Nobuyoshi Ozawa Kiyoshi Ito Toru Tase Hirohito Metoki Nobuo Yaegashi
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.240, no.2, pp.147-151, 2016 (Released:2016-10-15)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
5 13

Prevention of cervical cancer has been unsuccessful in Japan because of low rates of cancer screening and vaccination. The Vaccine Adverse Review Committee of the Japanese Government investigated 2,475 adverse events and reported 617 (6.9/100,000) severe cases and 176 (2.0/100,000) cases with chronic pain. The proactive recommendation for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been suspended since June 2013. In this study, we examined vaccination rate and incidence of abnormal cervical cytology in women aged 20 to 24 years attending cancer screening in Miyagi. Among the 3,272 women who underwent a health check in the fiscal year 2014 (April 2014-March 2015), 332 (10.2%) received a HPV vaccination. The HPV vaccination rates were 42.3%, 10%, 17.5%, 3.8% and 4.0% in women aged 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 years, respectively. The rates of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse were 2.41% (8/332) in women with HPV vaccination and 5.03% (148/2,940) in those without HPV vaccination, indicating a significant decrease in vaccinated women (p = 0.03). ASC-US cases were referred to HPV DNA tests. In addition, the rates of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse were 0.30% (1/332) in women with HPV vaccination and 0.82% (24/2,940) in those without HPV vaccination, showing the marginal decrease in women who were vaccinated (p = 0.3). Thus, this study indicates that HPV vaccination is associated with a reduction in the incidence of cervical abnormalities, suggesting a need for scientific discussion of reinstatement of proactive recommendation for HPV vaccine in Japan.
著者
Yoshihiro Yoshimura Hidetaka Wakabayashi Ryo Momosaki Fumihiko Nagano Sayuri Shimazu Ai Shiraishi
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.252, no.1, pp.15-22, 2020 (Released:2020-08-25)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
4 5

As Japan’s population ages, there is a growing interest in regional health care coordination. Our study aimed to evaluate whether the interval between onset and admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards (onset-admission) was associated with outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a single rehabilitation hospital. Ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted to the wards were eligible to enroll. Outcomes included Functional Independence Measure (FIM)-motor gain, the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) and a discharge rate to home. FIM assesses functional independence, including motor (FIM-motor) and cognitive domains, and is a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs). The FIM-motor gain indicates the difference between the FIM-motor scores at admission and discharge. FILS is a 10-point observer-rated scale to measure swallowing. After enrollment, 481 patients (mean age 74.4 years; 45.7% women) were included. The median [interquartile range] onset-admission interval was 13 [10-20] days and the median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, a measure of stroke severity, was 8 [3-13]. In multivariate analysis, the onset-admission interval was independently associated with FIM-motor gain (β = −0.107, p = 0.024), FILS score at discharge (β = −0.159, p = 0.041), and the rate of discharge to home (odds ratio: 0.946, p = 0.032). In conclusion, a shorter interval between stroke onset and admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards contributes to improved outcomes, including ADLs, dysphagia, and a discharge rate to home, in ischemic stroke patients, regardless of stroke severity.
著者
YOUKICHI OHNO SHOETSU CHIBA SEISAKU UCHIGASAKI EIKOH UCHIMA HAJIME NAGAMORI MICHINAO MIZUGAKI YOSHIHARU OHYAMA KATSUHIKO KIMURA YASUO SUZUKI
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.167, no.2, pp.155-158, 1992 (Released:2006-08-31)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
9 10

OHNO, Y., CHIBA, S., UCHIGASAKI, S., UCHIMA, E., NAGAMORI, H., MIZUGAKI, M., OHYAMA, Y., KIMURA, K. and SUZUKI, Y. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin on the Toxic Effects of Aconitine in vivo. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 167 (2), 155-158 -Both aconite toxins (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) and a pufferfish toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) were detected in the blood of a legal autopsy case. In order to elucidate the in vivo influence of TTX on the toxic effects of aconitine, a mixture of aconitine and TTX was administered to male ICR mice orally or intraperitoneally. The animal experiments revealed that the time of death due to aconitine was significantly delayed in proportion to the dose of TTX compared with the case for aconitine alone, and that the mortality of aconitine was lowered by TTX when the dose ratio of the two toxins was in a particular range. Accordingly, it is thought that the toxic effects of aconitine are attenuated by TTX in vivo.
著者
Mohammed S. Razzaque
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.251, no.3, pp.175-181, 2020 (Released:2020-07-09)
参考文献数
83
被引用文献数
22 25

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now officially declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and most parts of the world are taking drastic measures to restrict human movements to contain the infection. Millions around the world are wondering, if there is anything that could be done, other than maintaining high personal hygiene, and be vigilant of the symptoms, to reduce the spread of the disease and chances of getting infected, or at least to lessen the burden of the disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The National and International health agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the WHO have provided clear guidelines for both preventive and treatment suggestions. In this article, I will briefly discuss, why keeping adequate zinc balance might enhance the host response and be protective of viral infections.
著者
Maria Teresa Murillo-Llorente Carmen Fajardo-Montañana Marcelino Perez-Bermejo
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.252, no.3, pp.185-191, 2020 (Released:2020-10-20)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
1

Iodine deficiency in Spain is a persisting public health problem and the prescription of potassium iodide is recommended during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict the risk factors of iodine deficiency during pregnancy, and compare the results obtained with a logistic regression model. Two hundred forty-four healthy pregnant women were included in a descriptive and prospective study in their first trimester of pregnancy. The women enrolled were asked specifically about their use of supplements containing potassium iodide, iron, folic acid and/or multivitamins during pregnancy. The consumption of iodine-rich foods was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire. A median UIC of 57.4 μg/L (IQR 32.8-99.3) was obtained, with 89.3% < 150 μg/L, the minimum recommended ioduria level by the WHO. There was no correlation between urinary iodine concentrations and maternal age, BMI or gestation week at recruitment. The urinary iodine concentrations were significantly higher in women who reported taking iodized supplements and/or iodized salt than those who did not. Number of gestations, age, body mass index, and intake of iodized supplements and iodized salt were the most important predictors of iodine deficiency. Based on Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, the diagnostic performance of the ANN model was superior to the logistic regression model. The ANN model, with variables on pregnancy and the intake of iodine rich foods, iodized supplement and iodized salt may be useful for predicting iodine deficiency in the early pregnancy.
著者
Shinichi Yamashita Juntaro Koyama Takuro Goto Shinji Fujii Shigeyuki Yamada Yoshihide Kawasaki Naoki Kawamorita Koji Mitsuzuka Yoichi Arai Akihiro Ito
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.252, no.3, pp.219-224, 2020 (Released:2020-11-03)
参考文献数
27

Testicular cancer occurs in the testes of the male reproductive system and is the most common cancer in adolescent and young adult (AYA) men. However, recently, there have been more cases of testicular cancer in men older than 40 years. Therefore, trends of testicular cancer during the past 40 years were retrospectively examined, focusing on age and histology. Patients who were diagnosed with testicular cancer at our institution between 1980 and 2019 were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into groups by the year of diagnosis (1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s), age at diagnosis (14, 15 to 39, and older than 40 years), and histological type (seminoma and non-seminoma). A total of 563 patients were diagnosed with testicular cancer over the 40-year period. The median age at diagnosis increased continuously, from 28 years to 31 years, 34 years, and 38 years in each period, respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, most testicular cancer patients were of the AYA generation, whereas the ratio of patients older than 40 years increased significantly since 2000 (p < 0.001). The relative proportion of seminoma also increased more than 50% since 2000. In the seminoma group, median age increased from 31 years to 41 years during the 40-year period (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the age at diagnosis is rising for testicular cancer patients. Clinicians should recognize that testicular cancer affects not only the AYA generation, but there has been a shift to older than 40 years, especially in seminoma.
著者
Tsubasa Suzuki Yasuhiko Ono Hidenori Maeda Yoshiki Tsujimoto Yugo Shobugawa Clyde Dapat Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Chihiro Yokota Hiroki Kondo Isolde C. Dapat Kousuke Saito Reiko Saito
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.232, no.2, pp.97-104, 2014 (Released:2014-02-15)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
8 7

Influenza vaccination is considered the single most important medical intervention for the prevention of influenza. The dose of trivalent influenza vaccine in children was increased almost double since 2011/12 season in Japan. We estimated the influenza vaccine effectiveness for children 1-11 years of age using rapid test kits in Isahaya City, involving 28,884 children-years, over two consecutive influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). Children were divided into two groups, vaccinated and unvaccinated, according to their vaccination record, which was obtained from an influenza registration program organized by the Isahaya Medical Association for all pediatric facilities in the city. There were 14,562 and 14,282 children aged from 1-11 years in the city in 2011 and 2012 respectively. In the 2011/12 season, the overall vaccine effectiveness in children from 1-11 years of age, against influenza A and B were 23% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14%-31%] and 20% [95% CI: 8%-31%], respectively. In the 2012/13 season, vaccine effectiveness against influenza A and B was 13% (95% CI: 4%-20%) and 9% (95% CI: −4%-21%), respectively. The vaccine effectiveness was estimated using the rapid diagnosis test kits. Age-stratified estimation showed that vaccine effectiveness was superior in younger children over both seasons and for both virus types. In conclusion, the trivalent influenza vaccine has a significant protective effect for children 1-11 years of age against influenza A and B infection in the 2011/12 season and against influenza A infection in the 2012/13 season in a community in Japan.
著者
Eikan Mishima Naohiko Anzai Mariko Miyazaki Takaaki Abe
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.251, no.2, pp.87-90, 2020 (Released:2020-06-12)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
2 21

In light of the recent pandemic, favipiravir (Avigan®), a purine nucleic acid analog and antiviral agent approved for use in influenza in Japan, is being studied for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increase in blood uric acid level is a frequent side effect of favipiravir. Here, we discussed the mechanism of blood uric acid elevation during favipiravir treatment. Favipiravir is metabolized to an inactive metabolite M1 by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, and excreted into urine. In the kidney, uric acid handling is regulated by the balance of reabsorption and tubular secretion in the proximal tubules. Favipiravir and M1 act as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3), which are involved in uric acid excretion in the kidney. In addition, M1 enhances uric acid reuptake via urate transporter 1 (URAT1) in the renal proximal tubules. Thus, favipiravir is thought to decrease uric acid excretion into urine, resulting in elevation of uric acid levels in blood. Elevated uric acid levels were returned to normal after discontinuation of favipiravir, and favipiravir is not used for long periods of time for the treatment of viral infection. Thus, the effect on blood uric acid levels was subclinical in most studies. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of favipiravir might be clinically important in patients with a history of gout, hyperuricemia, kidney function impairment (in which blood concentration of M1 increases), and where there is concomitant use of other drugs affecting blood uric acid elevation.
著者
Norio Suzuki
出版者
Tohoku University Medical Press
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.235, no.3, pp.233-240, 2015 (Released:2015-03-17)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
15 23

Erythrocytes play an essential role in the delivery of oxygen from the lung to every organ; a decrease in erythrocytes (anemia) causes hypoxic stress and tissue damage. To maintain oxygen homeostasis in adult mammals, when the kidney senses hypoxia, it secretes an erythroid growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), which stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. Recently, studies using genetically modified mice have shown that the in vivo expression profile of the Epo gene changes dramatically during development. The first Epo-producing cells emerge in the neural crest and neuroepithelium of mid-stage embryos and support primitive erythropoiesis in the yolk sac. Subsequently, Epo from the hepatocytes stimulates erythropoiesis in the fetal liver of later stage embryos in a paracrine manner. In fact, erythroid lineage cells comprise the largest cell population in the fetal liver, and hepatocytes are distributed among the erythroid cell clusters. Adult erythropoiesis in the bone marrow requires Epo that is secreted by renal Epo-producing cells (REP cells). REP cells are widely distributed in the renal cortex and outer medulla. Hypoxia-inducible Epo production both in hepatocytes and REP cells is controlled at the gene transcription level that is mainly mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathway. These mouse studies further provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of the cell-type specific, hypoxia-inducible expression of the Epo gene, which involves multiple sets of cis- and trans-regulatory elements.