- 国文学研究資料館紀要 = The Bulletin of The National Institure of Japanese Literature Archival Studies (ISSN:03869377)
- no.01, pp.29-52, 2005-03-28
本稿は、原爆によるアーカイブズヘの影響について、これまでの「壊滅的被害」という「常識」や「先入観」を再考し、広島におけるアーカイブズ被害の実態について考察したものである。本稿は次の方法によりその課題に迫ってみた。第一に原爆前後で行政文書がどう扱われたのかを、県庁職員への聞き取りと被爆手記により解明し、県庁の文書疎開の実態を明らかにする。第二に戦前期作成された広島県行政文書(とくに県議会文書)についてその履歴と戦後の文書引継ぎ状況を解明する。第三に県以外の国や市の行政機関や民間事業所・団体等における記録の疎開状況を明らかにする。結論は次のようである。広島県庁は被爆で全焼するが、被爆前の昭和20年(1945)6月以降に議会担当の庶務課の重要文書は広島県中部の高田地方事務所へ疎開された。時期不詳だが、広島県西部の廿日市市地御前の教員保養所、広島市内の安芸高等女学校及び盲学校にも文書は疎開された。それらの文書は被爆後回収され業務に利用された。これまで戦後の「収集」文書とみなされてきた県議会文書も、戦時の疎開文書だった。被爆を免れた広島県行政文書は少なくとも1600冊以上あったと考えられ、うち680冊程度は現在確認できない。疎開文書の一部は敗戦時の焼却や戦後の庁舎移転時の廃棄等により失われた。広島市や国の機関は主に昭和20年6月から7月にかけて戸籍や土地台帳、重要書類や江戸期以来の土地租税資料、判決原本、訴訟記録、登記関係書類、刑事事件簿などを広島市や広島市郊外(可部町・中野村・白木町)及び県北部の庄原区裁判所などへ疎開させた。民間事業者・宗教団体も、伝票・過去帳や重要書類を疎開させた。同年6月から7月にかけて、疎開の気運が高まり、組織体の文書・記録や史料が疎開され守られた。原爆により地域の文書・記録は「壊滅」したのではない。むしろ戦後その一部が失われた。This paper investigates the truth about how the atomic bomb affected the archives in Hiroshima. There is a preconceived notion that those archives must have been destroyed at that time and this is regarded as the accepted position. This pre-conception is reconsidered here and the actual damage which the archives suffered in Hiroshima is elucidated.The subject of this paper is approached by the following process: Firstly, interviews with the prefectural office workers and the witness notes of the atomic bomb are examined to clarify how the administration documents were treated before and after the atomic bomb. The actual circumstances of the evacuation of the Hiroshima Prefectural Office are clarified.Secondly, for the wartime period, how the Hiroshima administration documents (especially the Prefectural Assembly documents) were handled is clarified.Thirdly, the circumstances of the evacuation of the records of the governmental agencies other than the Prefecture-the national organization and the city ones, and also those of the private sector organizations are clarified.The conclusions are as follows: Although the Hiroshima Prefectural Office was destroyed, the important documents of the Administrative Affairs Division, which was in charge of the Parliament, had already been evacuated to the Takada local office which was located in the central part of Hiroshima sometime after June in Showa 20 (1945) but before the bombing.At some unknown time, some other important documents of the Hiroshima Prefectural Office were also evacuated to the Teacher's Resort House in Jigozen, (in Hatsukaichi City in the Western part of Hiroshima), the Aki Girls' High School in Hiroshima, and the Hiroshima Blind School. Those documents were gathered together again after the war and used for business.Most of the Prefectural Assembly documents, usually considered the ''collection'' in the post-wartime, were actually ones which were saved by evacuation. It is thought that at least 1600 volumes of Hiroshima administration documents escaped contamination by the atomic bomb. Of these, about 680 volumes cannot now be traced. Some of the evacuated documents could have been lost by incineration at the time of defeat, or by abandonment when the Prefectural Office building was relocated in the post-war period.Mainly during June and July in Showa 20 (1945), Hiroshima City Hall and the organizations of the national government evacuated their important documents including the family registers, the land ledgers, the historical records of the land tax since the Edo era, the original judgments, the law suit records, the registration-related papers, and the criminal casebooks. They were moved to the Hijiyama Hill in the city, to the suburb, Kabe town, Nakano village, and Shiraki town) and the Shobara Court in the northern part of the prefecture. Private enterprises and religious bodies also evacuated their important documents, the slips and the death registers.From June to July in Showa 20, the need for evacuation grew so much that the records of the organizations and historical materials were evacuated and protected. The records of this area were not ''damaged destructively" by the atomic bomb. Rather, some of them were lost after the war.