- 東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
- vol.76, no.1・2, pp.193-222, 1994-10
In the 11-12th centuries, there were many amīrs in the era of the Great Saljūqs who ruled Iraq and Iran. They were military-commanders, iqṭāʻ holders,and sometimes served in the court of the rulers.Gauhar Ā’īn (meaning Jewel Mirror in Persian)was a mamlūk amīr who served seven rulers. Among them, one was a woman, and four were the Saljuqid rulers. He went to the battle field six times. It was a great success for him that one of his ghulām soldiers captured the Emperor of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Malāzgird.Gauhar Ā’īn was appointed shaḥna, the military governor of Baghdād three times. His mission was to maintain order of the big city. He exercised his power cruelly to oppress riots. The most important duty for him is to negotiate with the ‘Abbāsid Caliph. Whenever he came to Baghdād as shaḥna of Sulṭān, he interfered in the affairs of the Caliph about the dismissal of his wazīrs. He represented the Sulṭān in the diplomatic intercourses, and continued to threaten the Caliph by unusual performances. Gauhar Ā’īn died at the age of over 70 years in the battle of Sefīd-rūd, the battle between Saljuqid rulers in 1100. His body was returned to Baghdād, and buried in the eastern section of the city.In Gauhar Ā’īn life-history, we can see the typical career of a mamlūk amīr of those days. He was trusted by Sulṭāns, acted as a faithful slave commander. He even executed a member of the royal family, and also attended on Alp Arslān when he was killed.FoIlowing up the life of each amīr, we can clarify the characteristics of the Saljuqid ruling system.