著者
内田 らら
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.1-9, 2001

In this paper, I examine where nanka in ordinary conversations comes from. Here I take into consideration the relationship between nanka and "concept" (Halliday 1994:59) in "information unit" (ibid.). From analysis and discussion, I point out (1) nanka is not "a habit of saying" to make introductory remarks, but discourse marker which follows new concepts for hearers and (2) nanka is born of metaphorical grammaticalization from pronoun and metonymic one from adverbial particle to discourse marker. Moreover, I make clear the process of grammaticalization concerning nanka. That is, nanka is derived from pronoun expressing what is unspecified. Later, influenced by adverbial particle, it marks the whole utterances after nanka as something vague and is used in order to connect to clear contexts before nanka. Then, it is grammaticalized as an expression that implies the speaker's attitude to or judgement on what remains vague after nanka.
著者
大西 昇
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.61-75, 2001

For the people in the ancient Japan,nature herself was not God,but some natural products were their gods. Natural products had not their creator; they were not the creator and yet not creatures. They were matter and or non-matter. Therefore gods of the ancient Japanese were matter and or non-matter. And yet they were not gods of the Animism.
著者
野呂 浩
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.30-38, 2001

Scholars of American literature have produced innumerable interpretations on Nathaniel Hawthorne's masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Notably, each different approach to the work has revealed a different viewpoint hidden within the story. Here, the story is to be analyzed in relation to the lifelong inner angst of author Nathaniel Hawthorne. This new approach shows the main characters to be individuals into whom the depth of Nathaniel Hawthorne's psychological mindset has been projected. Arthur Dimmesdale, a young minister, reflects the author's internal struggle over his ancestor's past involvement in the judgement of witches, including at the Salem witch trial in 1692. Chillingworth, a diabolical man, represents Nathaniel Hawthorne's sense of guilt, and shows his commitment as an artist to observing people's inner souls. Hester's freethinking manner and way of life can be seen as Nathaniel Hawthorne's strong determination to become an independent artist, and one who is never to fall victim to the stains of the past and society. Nathaniel Hawthorne's longing for British culture is reflected in Pearl. The particular end that each character meets can also be interpreted as carrying its own unique message. Nathaniel Hawthorne is very negative about Chillingworth; the author shows no sympathy for his own inevitably sinful fate of peeping into people's inner souls. The implications of Dimmesdale's death after his final confession on the scaffold are somewhat ambiguous. It is uncertain whether he was saved or severely judged. More likely, there is a mixture of both elements, and his death clearly shows us that the sinful lifestyle of Nathaniel Hawthorne's ancestors must end. Hester ultimately returns of her own free will to the puritan society of Boston, after having lived for a while in the Old World with her daughter Pearl. Hester's return tells us that Nathaniel Hawthorne's desire for freedom includes the possibility of serving the puritan society. Pearl is the only character alive at the end of the novel, happily married, and possibly in England. Nathaniel Hawthorne's decision to live as an artist includes aspirations of British heritage. Dimmesdale's inherited strong animal nature is the root of the persecuting spirit in the history of the author's' ancestors. Therefore, the scarlet letter A in the story can be interpreted as the initial letter of the word 'animal.'
著者
大西 昇
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.40-48, 1998-01-31
著者
玉井 実
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.39-50, 1999

Deism, a philosophical, theological, and, religious idea of deity in modern age, is much included and connected in the traditional old ones. In this paper, I treat of deism itself and other ideas of gods surrounding it. The content of this report is divided into three parts; firstly, the essence of deism and the connection with theism, secondly, in relation to atheism, naturalism, and free-thinking, thirdly, from some aspects of pantheism. Through these reasonings, I intend to clarify a fine resemblance and difference, and to make a comparison and contrast with deism and the others. As a result of these investigations, I seek to connect many-sided objects of deism-study with important points of other deities. I hope, afterwards, to improve a further study for real meanings of the broad deism.
著者
加藤 典子
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.48-57, 2000

The purpose of this paper is to focus the concept of "face" regarded as an important concept that controls our daily communication and to clarify the difference of "face" in English. Chinese and Japanese. The reason why I take up this theme is that I am convinced that making the difference clear is indispensable for preventing, from happening, intercultural miscommunication. As a result of collecting each feature of "face" in English, Chinese and Japanese, in accordance with Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) concerning English face, Mao (1994) . Chinese face, and Matsumoto (1988) and Ide (1989) . Japanese face, the following difference is clarified: ・ English face refers to two basic individual v,'ants composed of "positive face" (one's desire to be appreciated by others) and "negative face"(one's desire to be unimpeded by others). ・ Chinese face is closely Concerned with social or communal norms, that is, Chinese face is satisfied by acting and speaking in accordance with one's social norms and conventions. ・Japanese face is also characterized by community-oriented society, and satisfied by discerning the situation, one's status in their community and the relationship between interlocutors. As seen in this difference, English face is characterized by indlvidual wants while Chinese and Japanese face, the compliance with the community one belongs to. This difference between English face and Chinese and Japanese ones reflect on the diversity between western individual-oriented society and non-western community-oriented society. I hope this kind of study contributes to devising more elaborate and comprehensive linguistic theory and promoting smooth intercultural communication.