- エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
- vol.30, no.3, pp.177-182, 2015-09-20 (Released:2015-10-03)
Abstract This paper reviews health hazards caused by volcanic aerosols such as fine volcanic ash and acid mist formed from volcanic gases. Volcanic ash, which is defined as tephra or pyroclastic particles smaller than 2 mm, spreads over a wide area during explosive volcanic eruptions. A certain fraction of fine volcanic ash is classified as PM2.5 and thus has potential to cause health problems. Volcanic gases also have adverse effects on human health. In particular, sulfur dioxide injected into the stratosphere during a large scale eruption produces massive amounts of sulfuric acid aerosols to cause severe environmental stress on a global scale and possibly increase excess mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases. This paper describes fundamental properties of volcanic ash and gases from the view point of health effects. This paper also outlines some historical records of volcanic eruptions to show relationships between observed volcanic ash/gas concentrations and resultant health problems. Some fundamental issues are then discussed with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaboration to study volcanic aerosols.