51 0 0 0 OA 人工降雨とは

著者
村上 正隆
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.5-13, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-04-16)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Scientifically-based methods of rainmaking (one of planned weather modification technologies) appeared brilliantly just after World War II, and are currently used in about 40 nations and regions worldwide. The rainmaking methods introducing dry-ice pellets or artificially generated aerosols which act as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei into clouds, bypass the rate-limiting processes in rain and snow formation mechanisms in natural clouds by producing precipitation embryos in the form of large droplets in warm clouds or ice crystals in cold clouds, and lead to precipitation enhancement. In this paper, while describing the necessity, history, principle and problems of rainmaking, the leading-edge trend of the planned weather modification research is briefly introduced.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.278-283, 2012 (Released:2013-01-18)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
3

Super-eruption release voluminous sulfuric gas into the atmosphere, which produce a large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosol reflects incoming solar radiation, giving rise to the rapid climatic cooling called the “volcanic winter” on the Earth’s surface. The Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago, the largest eruption in a million years on the Earth, erupted as much as 2,800 km3 of felsic magma. The average global temperature is estimated to have lowered more than 10°C by the Toba super-eruption, which is inferred to have caused a severe bottleneck of the human population. Modern civilized human society will also suffer fatal damage by “volcanic winter”, if a super-eruption were to occur today.
著者
村山 泰啓
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.211-218, 2010 (Released:2010-10-20)
参考文献数
35

Noctilucent (night-shining) cloud (NLC), which is often called polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) also, consists of water-ice particles with approximate radii of 10–50nm, usually being formed in the polar summer mesopause region (82–85km altitude). Ground-based visual, lidar, and radar observations and space missions as well as model/theoretical research have been carried out to clarify the NLC/PMC's climatology, characteristics, and formation mechanisms, extending the observations to mid latitudes in both hemispheres. The influence to global warming is controversial to some extent, while a significant correlation between 11-year solar cycle to NLC variation is suggested. Through the radar studies of “polar summer mesosphere echo (PMSE)”, the NLC particles' important role has been recently stressed, leading to new “dusty plasma” sciences in the weakly-ionized upper atmosphere.
著者
古川 知恵美 吉井 裕美 細野 清志
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.150-154, 2013 (Released:2013-07-06)
参考文献数
14

While airborne emission of radioactive cesium (Cs) from contaminated biomass by fire has been studied, only few data is publicly available with regard to the transfer of Cs in tobacco leaf to tobacco smoke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fate of Cs during cigarette smoking, utilizing stable cesium isotope (133Cs) which is naturally contained in tobacco leaf. In order to calculate the transfer rate, mainstream and sidestream smoke from four brand styles of commercial cigarettes were collected with a machine-smoking method. Ash and butts from the smoked cigarettes of two out of the four brand styles were also collected for the estimation of mass balance. After digestion, those collected samples were analyzed with ICP-MS to determine the amount of 133Cs, and the amounts were compared with the original concentration in the cigarettes examined. The transfer rates of 133Cs into the mainstream smoke were proportional to the tar-level of each cigarette, whereas those into sidestream smoke were almost similar among the brand styles investigated. The maximum transfer rates into mainstream and sidestream smoke were 0.35% and 0.57%, respectively, and almost all 133Cs in tobacco was retained in ash and cigarette butts.
著者
石峯 康浩
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.177-182, 2015-09-20 (Released:2015-10-03)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Abstract This paper reviews health hazards caused by volcanic aerosols such as fine volcanic ash and acid mist formed from volcanic gases. Volcanic ash, which is defined as tephra or pyroclastic particles smaller than 2 mm, spreads over a wide area during explosive volcanic eruptions. A certain fraction of fine volcanic ash is classified as PM2.5 and thus has potential to cause health problems. Volcanic gases also have adverse effects on human health. In particular, sulfur dioxide injected into the stratosphere during a large scale eruption produces massive amounts of sulfuric acid aerosols to cause severe environmental stress on a global scale and possibly increase excess mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases. This paper describes fundamental properties of volcanic ash and gases from the view point of health effects. This paper also outlines some historical records of volcanic eruptions to show relationships between observed volcanic ash/gas concentrations and resultant health problems. Some fundamental issues are then discussed with the aim of promoting interdisciplinary collaboration to study volcanic aerosols.
著者
永尾 一平
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.269-277, 2012 (Released:2013-01-18)
参考文献数
67

One hypothesis regarding global climate regulation by marine phytoplankton was proposed in 1987. This is called the CLAW hypothesis that describes the negative feedback loop through controlling the emission of biogenic sulfur compounds, dimethylsulfide (DMS) as responses to climate parameter changes such as solar radiation and sea surface temperature, resulting in controlling non sea-salt sulfate aerosols, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud albedo, thus eventually mitigating the initial changes. However, verification of this hypothesis has not yet been concluded. This is mainly due to lack of our understandings both on the processes and responses described in this hypothesis, because of complexities in the processes of DMS production and loss in the seawater, and in those of aerosols and CCN formations in the atmosphere. In this paper, the progress of recent research on these processes and responses is briefly reviewed, and contribution of DMS to the climate regulation is discussed. Although research on climate regulation by DMS has not yet completed, on the basis of discussion with updated results, it can be concluded that this contribution is not sufficient to regulate the global climate.

22 0 0 0 OA PM2.5 とマスク

著者
明星 敏彦
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.4, pp.287-291, 2013-12-15 (Released:2014-01-07)
参考文献数
8

From January 2013, severe air pollution in Chinese cities including Beijing was reported and Japanese people were afraid of PM2.5 as a new toxic substance. JAAST provided the information about PM2.5 using the official homepage. People are very much concerned whether the commonly used masks are effective against PM2.5. This article introduces health effect of aerosol inhalation, structures of surgical masks and dust respirators, performance of fibrous filters against aerosol particles, and fitness between masks and wears. In terms of effectiveness of masks, the fitness of masks is more important than the filter performance against aerosol particle inhalation.
著者
小木曽 洋一
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.3, pp.221-226, 1994-09-20 (Released:2010-08-27)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1

15 0 0 0 OA 空を巡る微生物

著者
幸島 司郎
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.43-47, 2010-03-20 (Released:2010-03-25)
参考文献数
33

Small sized organisms less than 2 mm, especially free-living microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae tend to show world-wide distribution pattern. This suggests that many microorganisms travel to disperse long-distance in the air by wind. In fact, various microorganisms have been reported from the air at various altitudes in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere (0–77 km a.s.l). Since dispersals to favorable habitats is important for microbes, it is possible that some microbes are adapted for long-distance dispersal in the air. For example, some bacteria and fungi living on leaf surface have been reported to produce ice-nucleation protains that function as condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Hamilton and Lenton (1998) proposed a hypothesis that some microorganisms produce special substances that function as condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei for cloud formation and migrate in the air safely and effectively in cloud droplets or in snowflakes. Recently, it has been reported that large part of the ice nuclei found in the new snow collected from various high-middle latitude areas were suggested to be microorganisms with ice nucleation protains. Therefore, microorganisms in the air could affect the cloud formation and precipitation in many regions of the world.
著者
山口 一 山田 容子
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.96-103, 2016-06-20 (Released:2016-06-23)
参考文献数
17

In pharmaceutical or food production facilities, a high standard of internal environment of the facility is required, including countermeasures against microorganisms. These countermeasures from the facility point of view include partitioning of work zones (zoning), and cleaning the air using HEPA filters. However, when workers/researchers are working within a facility, dispersion of dust or adhering microbe brought in with clothes, etc., cause pollution of the air. In this report, the sterilization performance of weak acid hypochlorous solution used as the chemical substance was verified. In addition, the sterilization performance in an actual space varied not only with the chemical substance used, but also with the condition of the room, the air conditioning system, the method of spraying, etc. Therefore, from the above sterilization performance tests using chemical substances, the raw data required for a computational fluid mechanics (CFD) model were derived. A method which is capable of predicting the effect of the chemical substance t under various conditions was investigated, and the results are reported.
著者
中串 孝志 古川 邦之 山本 博基 大西 将徳 飯澤 功 酒井 敏
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.107-112, 2007-06-20 (Released:2007-06-20)
参考文献数
3

Planetary aerosol laboratory experiments for science education were carried out in a curriculum of Kyoto University. Our goal is to reproduce “the blue sunset” on Mars which are reported from NASA's Mars Pathfinder. In reproducing the rays scattered by Martian atmosphere (dust storm) in a laboratory, the number density of scattering particles has to be as large as possible. Three experiments were conducted in the air and water. Although we were not able to reproduce Martian blue sunset, we elucidated its spectrum. Converting this spectrum to a color in the RGB system, we obtained R = 114, G = 122, B = 192. Though the experiment, we proved that planetary aerosol laboratory experiments are significantly fruitful for science education as well as for science studies. We propose that researchers and lecturers should make active use of planetary aerosol laboratory experiments for science education.
著者
小村 和久
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.4, pp.276-282, 1995-12-20 (Released:2010-07-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1
著者
太田 幸雄
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.98-105, 1991-06-20 (Released:2011-06-09)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
2
著者
岩坂 泰信 小林 史尚 皆巳 幸也
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.4-12, 2010-03-20 (Released:2010-03-25)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
3

There has been interest in bioaerosols that have been linked to health hazards for humans, animals, and plants. Additionally, recently possible contributions of bioaerosols to atmospheric processes become a large concern from the view point of interaction between climate-weather and bioaerosol, especially the potential of micro organisms as ice nuclei. However knowledge on atmospheric bioaerosols is extremely poor due to the technical difficulty in measurement of bioaerosols in the atmosphere. Recently some investigators tried to collect atmospheric bioaerosols on high mountains and/or high tower to understand the transport processes, the environmental stress on micro biota in the atmosphere, the concentration and diversity of micro organisms in the atmosphere. Now the science of bioaerosols is world-widely accepted as large break-through in atmospheric science, aerosol science, environmental science, and others. The concentrations and diversity of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and the changes in their temporal-spatial are essential knowledge to clarify the long range transport of bioaerosols and the atmospheric processes affected by bioaerosols, and the environmental effects of micro organisms transported in long range. Balloon borne measurements were actively made in Kanazawa, Japan and Dunhuang, China in 2005-2009 suggesting that Kosa (Asian dust) particles were effective carriers of micro biota. Mixture states of Kosa and micro biota certainly suppress the environmental stress such as ultra-violet solar radiation, dryness and low temperature. The papers in this special issue of EAROZORU KENKYU are mainly based on these balloon borne measurements, and the newest information is described. Considering that the westerly wind frequently transports lots of Kosa particles from arid and semi-arid regions in China and Mongolia to downwind including Japan, the effect of Kosa bioaerosol mixture on environment, weather and health is of large concern in downwind areas. The paper by Kohshima (this issue) describes interesting and valuable topics in order to discuss the effects of Kosa bioaerosols on environment.
著者
岡田 隆 石津 嘉昭
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.3, pp.156-164, 1986-09-20 (Released:2011-06-28)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
2