著者
古川 知恵美 吉井 裕美 細野 清志
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.150-154, 2013 (Released:2013-07-06)
参考文献数
14

While airborne emission of radioactive cesium (Cs) from contaminated biomass by fire has been studied, only few data is publicly available with regard to the transfer of Cs in tobacco leaf to tobacco smoke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fate of Cs during cigarette smoking, utilizing stable cesium isotope (133Cs) which is naturally contained in tobacco leaf. In order to calculate the transfer rate, mainstream and sidestream smoke from four brand styles of commercial cigarettes were collected with a machine-smoking method. Ash and butts from the smoked cigarettes of two out of the four brand styles were also collected for the estimation of mass balance. After digestion, those collected samples were analyzed with ICP-MS to determine the amount of 133Cs, and the amounts were compared with the original concentration in the cigarettes examined. The transfer rates of 133Cs into the mainstream smoke were proportional to the tar-level of each cigarette, whereas those into sidestream smoke were almost similar among the brand styles investigated. The maximum transfer rates into mainstream and sidestream smoke were 0.35% and 0.57%, respectively, and almost all 133Cs in tobacco was retained in ash and cigarette butts.
著者
永尾 一平
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.269-277, 2012 (Released:2013-01-18)
参考文献数
67

One hypothesis regarding global climate regulation by marine phytoplankton was proposed in 1987. This is called the CLAW hypothesis that describes the negative feedback loop through controlling the emission of biogenic sulfur compounds, dimethylsulfide (DMS) as responses to climate parameter changes such as solar radiation and sea surface temperature, resulting in controlling non sea-salt sulfate aerosols, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud albedo, thus eventually mitigating the initial changes. However, verification of this hypothesis has not yet been concluded. This is mainly due to lack of our understandings both on the processes and responses described in this hypothesis, because of complexities in the processes of DMS production and loss in the seawater, and in those of aerosols and CCN formations in the atmosphere. In this paper, the progress of recent research on these processes and responses is briefly reviewed, and contribution of DMS to the climate regulation is discussed. Although research on climate regulation by DMS has not yet completed, on the basis of discussion with updated results, it can be concluded that this contribution is not sufficient to regulate the global climate.
著者
高橋 正樹
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.278-283, 2012 (Released:2013-01-18)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
3

Super-eruption release voluminous sulfuric gas into the atmosphere, which produce a large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosol reflects incoming solar radiation, giving rise to the rapid climatic cooling called the “volcanic winter” on the Earth’s surface. The Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago, the largest eruption in a million years on the Earth, erupted as much as 2,800 km3 of felsic magma. The average global temperature is estimated to have lowered more than 10°C by the Toba super-eruption, which is inferred to have caused a severe bottleneck of the human population. Modern civilized human society will also suffer fatal damage by “volcanic winter”, if a super-eruption were to occur today.
著者
村山 泰啓
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.211-218, 2010 (Released:2010-10-20)
参考文献数
35

Noctilucent (night-shining) cloud (NLC), which is often called polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) also, consists of water-ice particles with approximate radii of 10–50nm, usually being formed in the polar summer mesopause region (82–85km altitude). Ground-based visual, lidar, and radar observations and space missions as well as model/theoretical research have been carried out to clarify the NLC/PMC's climatology, characteristics, and formation mechanisms, extending the observations to mid latitudes in both hemispheres. The influence to global warming is controversial to some extent, while a significant correlation between 11-year solar cycle to NLC variation is suggested. Through the radar studies of “polar summer mesosphere echo (PMSE)”, the NLC particles' important role has been recently stressed, leading to new “dusty plasma” sciences in the weakly-ionized upper atmosphere.
著者
小木曽 洋一
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.3, pp.221-226, 1994-09-20 (Released:2010-08-27)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
1

13 1 0 0 OA 空を巡る微生物

著者
幸島 司郎
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.43-47, 2010-03-20 (Released:2010-03-25)
参考文献数
33

Small sized organisms less than 2 mm, especially free-living microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae tend to show world-wide distribution pattern. This suggests that many microorganisms travel to disperse long-distance in the air by wind. In fact, various microorganisms have been reported from the air at various altitudes in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere (0–77 km a.s.l). Since dispersals to favorable habitats is important for microbes, it is possible that some microbes are adapted for long-distance dispersal in the air. For example, some bacteria and fungi living on leaf surface have been reported to produce ice-nucleation protains that function as condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Hamilton and Lenton (1998) proposed a hypothesis that some microorganisms produce special substances that function as condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei for cloud formation and migrate in the air safely and effectively in cloud droplets or in snowflakes. Recently, it has been reported that large part of the ice nuclei found in the new snow collected from various high-middle latitude areas were suggested to be microorganisms with ice nucleation protains. Therefore, microorganisms in the air could affect the cloud formation and precipitation in many regions of the world.
著者
中串 孝志 古川 邦之 山本 博基 大西 将徳 飯澤 功 酒井 敏
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.107-112, 2007-06-20 (Released:2007-06-20)
参考文献数
3

Planetary aerosol laboratory experiments for science education were carried out in a curriculum of Kyoto University. Our goal is to reproduce “the blue sunset” on Mars which are reported from NASA's Mars Pathfinder. In reproducing the rays scattered by Martian atmosphere (dust storm) in a laboratory, the number density of scattering particles has to be as large as possible. Three experiments were conducted in the air and water. Although we were not able to reproduce Martian blue sunset, we elucidated its spectrum. Converting this spectrum to a color in the RGB system, we obtained R = 114, G = 122, B = 192. Though the experiment, we proved that planetary aerosol laboratory experiments are significantly fruitful for science education as well as for science studies. We propose that researchers and lecturers should make active use of planetary aerosol laboratory experiments for science education.
著者
小村 和久
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.4, pp.276-282, 1995-12-20 (Released:2010-07-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

5 0 0 0 OA 人工降雨とは

著者
村上 正隆
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.5-13, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-04-16)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Scientifically-based methods of rainmaking (one of planned weather modification technologies) appeared brilliantly just after World War II, and are currently used in about 40 nations and regions worldwide. The rainmaking methods introducing dry-ice pellets or artificially generated aerosols which act as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei into clouds, bypass the rate-limiting processes in rain and snow formation mechanisms in natural clouds by producing precipitation embryos in the form of large droplets in warm clouds or ice crystals in cold clouds, and lead to precipitation enhancement. In this paper, while describing the necessity, history, principle and problems of rainmaking, the leading-edge trend of the planned weather modification research is briefly introduced.
著者
反町 篤行
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.4, pp.261-268, 2017-09-20 (Released:2018-01-12)
参考文献数
47

This paper summaries the reports on early internal exposure to the public due to the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 and the issues on the internal dose assessments. The results by whole-body-counter (WBC) measurement for early internal exposure showed that the committed effective doses to most of the residents were less than 1 mSv. Thyroid equivalent doses were much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident. Through the internal exposure measurements made so far, there are the issues such as lack of the data associated with the internal dose assessments, radioactivity measurement by the WBC, selection of intake scenarios, and internal dose assessments for insoluble and radiocesium-bearing radioactive particles with a high activity.
著者
田中 昭代
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.213-218, 2005 (Released:2007-01-12)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
1

There was little information regarding the adverse health effects to humans or animals arising from exposure to indium compounds until mid 1990. However, due to the increasingly frequent industrial use of indium such as indium-tin oxide (ITO), the potential occupational or environmental exposure to indium compounds has attracted much attention. In 2001, the first case of interstitial pneumonia caused by exposure to ITO occupationally was reported. Recent animal studies have indicated the pulmonary or testicular toxicity of indium compounds. Furthermore, carcinogenicity of InP was demonstrated by the inhalation study in rats and mice and that of InAs was suspected in the intratracheal instillation study using hamsters. It appeared that indium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical characteristics of the particles also contribute to toxic effect. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of indium, indium compounds or ITO.
著者
吉井 千春 森本 泰夫 城戸 優光
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.238-242, 2005 (Released:2007-01-12)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

Welder's pneumoconiosis, which is caused by the inhalation of welding fumes, is one of the major pneumoconioses in Japan. The major component of welding fumes is iron oxide. Although welder's pneumoconiosis has been considered to be inert, recent reports revealed the possibility of developing fibrosis. In this article, we demonstrate radiological and pathological features of welder's pneumoconiosis, and also review the mechanisms of developing pulmonary fibrosis. In high-resolution CT (HRCT), typical welder's pneumoconiosis shows fine centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. In some cases, fibrotic changes may be seen in subpleural areas in both lower lung fields. Lung biopsy specimens show numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages within alveolar spaces associated with mild to moderate interstitial fibrosis. The mechanisms of developing fibrosis can be explained by “overload phenomenon”. Namely, in cases of mild exposure to welding fumes, iron oxides and hemosiderin-laden macrophages locate within air-spaces and may be reduced in numbers by mucociliary transport system. However, in cases of massive inhalation, accumulation of iron oxides and hemosiderin-laden macrophages exceed the capacity of mucociliary transport system. As a result, they invade into the interstitium and cause interstitial inflammation or thickening and eventually pulmonary fibrosis.
著者
松浦 一雄
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.30-35, 2011

Separation through ultrasonic atomization has advantages in industrial application over distillation, i.e., low energy consumption, unheated process and quick start of opertion. The first application of ultrasonic atomization was sake refining by utilizing the advantage of no heating, its application is now growing in various industrial processes, for example, ethanol purification, waste water treatment, micro-nanometer ice formation, sugar concentration etc. In addition, carbon dioxide emission by ultrasonic atomization separation is extremely low compared to distillation. The ultrasonic atomization separation will replace many conventional separation processes because of the superior characteristics.<br>
著者
関本 奏子 高山 光男
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.203-213, 2011 (Released:2011-09-28)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
1

Ambient corona discharge has been used as an ionizer in a wide range of research and industrial fields such as environmental, analytical and aerosol sciences, and possibly even commercial electric appliances. Terminal ions produced via ion evolutions through successive ion-molecule reactions in corona discharge can readily and efficiently supply the charge for ionization in ambient air. Despite substantial progress in the application of corona discharge, the elementary processes involved in terminal ion formation and evolution are not yet well understood. It has been reported that negative ion evolution is rather complex compared to that of positive ions, and that it is difficult to regulate the reproducible formation of specific negative ion species. We have recently established an atmospheric pressure corona discharge system containing a specific corona needle that successfully leads to regular and reproducible generation of various positive and negative ions originating from ambient air. The system coupled with mass spectrometers made it possible to study the relationship between terminal ion formation and discharge conditions. In this paper, the formation and evolution mechanism of terminal ions such as H3O+, HO-, NOx- and COx- depending on the electric field strength on the needle tip and the resulting kinetic energy of electrons accelerated at the tip will be described.
著者
牧 輝弥 小林 史尚 柿川 真紀子 鈴木 振二 當房 豊 山田 丸 松木 篤 洪 天祥 長谷川 浩 岩坂 泰信
出版者
日本エアロゾル学会
雑誌
エアロゾル研究 (ISSN:09122834)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.35-42, 2010-03-20 (Released:2010-03-25)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
2

The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols, because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Japan. In particular, halotolerant bacteria which are known to be tolerant to atmospheric environmental stresses were investigated for clarifying the long-range transport of microorganisms by KOSA. Bioaerosol samples were collected at high altitudes within the KOSA source area (Dunhuang City, China) and the KOSA arrival area (Suzu City, Japan). The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15 % NaCl, suggesting that bacteria tolerant to high salinities would remain viable in the atmosphere. The PCR-DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis using 16S rRNA genes sequences revealed that the halobacterial communities in bioaerosol samples belonged to the members of the genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus and that some bacterial species belonging to Bacillus subtilis group were similar among the samples of both cities. Moreover, some sequences of B. subtilis group were found to be identical for the species collected at high altitudes and on the ground surfaces. This suggests that active mixing of the boundary layer transports viable halotolerant bacteria up to the free atmosphere at the KOSA source area, while down to the ground surface at the KOSA arrival areas.