All living cells and organisms depend on monosaccharides such as glucose as a source of energy and carbon for metabolism. Glycation (Maillard reaction) is thus an unavoidable “background” reaction in all living systems. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and melanoidins are stable end products of the Maillard reaction. The non-enzymatic glycation reaction takes place both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in human body) between reducing sugars like glucose and amino groups of proteins. AGE and melanoidins are responsible for the browning observed as a result of cooking, processing and storage of foods such as coffee, soy sauce, beer and miso. In this review, we discuss about effects of the food-derived AGE and melanoidins on lifestyle-related diseases and human health.